MUSEE NATIONAL, ALGER – ALGERIE
La profusion et la variété des lampes, lampadaires et candélabres témoignent de l’importance que les luminaires pouvaient avoir durant les époques antiques. Ils peuvent être rudimentaires : une simple tasse ou un coquillage remplie d’huile où baigne la mèche comme ils peuvent être stylisés. Mais il existe bien d’autres types de lampes berbères dont la première impression que l’on a, en les voyant, est celle d’un chandelier à becs multiples… ». Qui nous rappellent la définition donnée par Athénée : « un vase de terre cuite sur lequel sont appliqués un grands nombre de petits vases ». Ce serait une pièce symbolique, ou peut-être magique, non pas par sa morphologie, mais à cause du nombre des becs. Quelles furent l’origine et la destination réelle de ces objets à becs dans la société berbère moderne ?
UNIVERSITY OF ARTS AND DESIGN CLUJ-NAPOCA
Light as a means of integrating man into the world.The relation between light, space and time in the Romanian conscience/mentality
In The Trilogy of Culture, Lucian Blaga defines the “necessary framework for the existence of the Romanian unconscious” as a “mioritic space’, an accepted and consecrated metaphorical model, which defines a general subjective framework that proves efficient in the characterization of the “stylistic matrix” of Romanian folkloric creation, of our specific temperamental component, as well as the idea of ascent and descent, of the alternation between hill and valley which illustrates the indisputable inconsistency of the Romanian soul. This model is perfectly suitable for a subjective system analyzing the specifics of Romanian folkloric and cultured art. Nevertheless, the particular representation of reality within the Romanian conscience may be approached from more objective and pragmatic perspectives, which are suitable for both the quotidian reality and the relationship with eternity. The model proposed by Blaga referred mainly to the intellectual-emotional-creative space that implies the integration of man into the cosmos and, at the same time, the way the cosmos is reflected in the earthly life, both being defined by the “ascending immanent” and the “descending transcendent”. There is also a “functional” space pertaining to a functional and concrete time, which is deeply related to human existence and highlighted and preponderantly analysed through a sociological perspective by Ernest Bernea. It is a spatial reference system, at the centre of which the existential data (birth place, home, neighbourhood, village, etc.) but also directions (back and forth, right-left, or cardinal points) are to be found. Within this space, the transient man is integrated in a temporal system – which may be regarded as having either a lineal or a circular shape – that is subject to the cycles determined by the celestial “luminaires”, the most important of which is the Holy Sun (daily, weekly, yearly, century). The lineal, unidirectional time is the objective, continuous and eternal Grand transition of the World. The circular time is subjective, representing the rotation of the world and being associated with the essential aspects of man : birth, growth, wedding, old age, death, rebirth, all of these being connected to the idea of tradition as a form of passing on a legacy. These reference systems impose the concept of “order”, a notion related to equilibrium and harmony, in which space and time are understood as qualitative concepts, and in which the telluric world is functionally associated with the sky, the celestial “luminaires” and light. The representational model of the world rendered by the Romanian folkloric culture is included in the general-human representation model, yet exhibiting individualizing features. It may be considered to unify space and time in a circular structure, with man as its central element, who is situated on the ascending ontological axis of light. The purpose of this model is to arrange the cosmic values, to make them compatible with the human existence, integrating them into it.
MUSEUMS OF BYZANTINE CULTURE, THESSALONICA – GREECE
Glass lamps from Late Roman Thessalonica
Communication focuses on glass finds from Thessalonica and its surroundings. The archaeological evidence proves that glass was used for the production of lamps only during Late Roman period, when the material was quite cheap and easily available, and glassblowers were active in the Town. At least three types of lamps were made locally, while two other imported (?) types occur among the archaeological finds of the region. The great majority of the vessels were made of colorless greenish, sometimes bubbly, glass. The following types can be distinguished : Plain hemispherical or slightly conical bowls with flat base and unworked rims, which sometimes bear three small handles, quite often appearing ca. 4th-5th cc. Tall conical vessels with flat base and unworked rim, quite seldom appearing from the 2nd half of 4th-5th cc. Stemmed goblet, sometimes with attached stem and foot, or even with three small handles prevailing form from the 5th c. onwards. Small hemispherical, or slightly conical, bowls with long slender cylindrical stem, usually hollow, or sometimes solid with beaded ending, present from the late 4th c. Among the least represented types are long cylindrical, tapering towards the beaded base, lamps and the unique find of a 4th c. lamp which represents a precise predecessor of 13th-14th cc. mosque lamps. Along with lamps, spouted glass vessels, usually called baby feeders, and their possible employ in filling clay or glass lamps will be discussed as well.
MUZEUL NATIONAL DE ISTORIE A TRANSILVANIEI, CLUJ-NAPOCA – ROMANIA
Lampes trouvées dans des édifices de culte de Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa
Les fouilles archéologiques de Ulpia Traiana, déroulées pendant la période 1882-1976 ont mis au jour 10 édifices de culte dédiés au divinités suivantes : Mithras, Serapis, Nemesis, Liber Pater, Aesculape et Hygie, Silvane, Hercule Auguste et deux autres dont les divinités n’ont pas été identifiées. Dans chaqu’un de ces édifices on a trouvé des lampes de différentes types, dans des quantités différentes, dans différentes situations stratigraphiques. Le total des lampes trouvées dans des édifices de culte dépasse considerablemment le nombre des lampes trouvées dans d’autres édifices qui ont été fouillées à Sarmizegetusa. Dans la même mesure, la fréquence des types de lampes des édifices de culte dépasse de loin celle des autres bâtiments. Le premier lieu est de loin occupé par le temple des dieux de la médicine, un fait qui est attribuable aussi à la pratique du rite de incubatio et conformemment à la série typologique c’est le premier édifice bâti à Sarmizegetusa. L’étude statistique démontre l’utilisation des lampes dans les temples aussi pour l’illumination que pour le rituel.
SANDA BĂCUEŢ CRIŞAN, CORINA BEJENARIU
MUZEUL JUDEŢEAN DE ISTORIE ŞI ARTĂ ZALĂU – ROMANIA
Ethno-archaeological considerations regarding the role of fire and light to the communities from Neolithic period
The only light sources nominalized for the neolithical period are the hearths/ fire places related to fire and the different types of oil-lamps or small altars. We will try to see in this study if the discovery context of the small altars brings other informations in order to clarify this problem or the fireplace remains the only light source for the neolithical site. Also, basing our assumptions on the archaeological discoveries and the ethnographical and ethnological analogies we will speculate over the necessity of a lightning system in the neolithical period.
MUZEUL DE ISTORIE NAŢIONALĂŞI ARHEOLOGIE CONSTANŢA – ROMANIA
Lamps of “Chersonesos-type” from Tomis
Excavations in Tomis in the last three decades brought to light an impressive number of lamps, both from the Town and necropolis area. Between those lamps, there are some pieces that can be named as “Chersonesos-type”, because they are very widespread in the North-Pontic area. We are trying to establish a chronological frame based on some closed finds from necropolis and a group of lamps found in a rescue excavation made in 1998 in the Town area. The oldest example, found in the necropolis, is dated at the beginning of the 3rd century and the later ones, found in the Town in a rich leveling stratum with pottery and hundreds of lamps, are dated at the end of the 3rd / beginning of the 4th century AD. Some unfinished pieces from this stratum points us to assume that it is possible to have a local production in the second half of the 3rd century.
MUZEUL JUDEŢEAN DE ISTORIEŞI ARTĂ ZALĂU – ROMANIA
About the lighting in mining activities in prehistory
The paper present some evidences of lighting in mining process during the prehistorical time in Europe. In mining galleries have been discovered torches, vessels used by miners like earthen lamps. The analysis have demonstrate to the effect that in the vessel were burn animal grease.
UNIVERSITATEA DE VEST TIMOŞOARA – ROMANIA
The anonymous production of lamps in Roman Dacia
This topic’s aim is to analyze the ancient production of Roman moulded lamps, obviously suggesting a local production. The specific method to underline such a production is represented by moulds, standard-pieces or the identification of some characteristics for lamps discovered in a given area (a settlement or a wider territory). We should, of course, consider a final possibility, that is the macroscopic analysis of the paste that could offer important information (such as for the amphorae or other ceramics). We will only investigate the first three aspects. The archaeological investigations have emphasized the presence of some lamp moulds in almost all the provincial environments, especially in towns and vici militares (Ulpia Traiana, Apulum, Tibiscum, Olteni, Ilisua) or in rural settlements (at Sucidava) and more recently in the villa rustica from Garia Mare. Although in most cases the lower part of the lamps is preserved, that sometimes makesheavier the typological identification, the model used is that of the lamps with an open channel. It is very important the discovery of a standard piece at Apulum, with two beaks and a palm handle. This suggests a large imitation of the Firmalampen and also a chronological differentiation, between the middle of the II and the beginning of the III century. In the workshop from Garia Mare there are two lamps with several beaks, radially situated around a decorated disk. Such pieces are more carefully made than other similar pieces and typologically belong to the simple, round or square body lamps. The third characteristic was suggested by the new, not used lamps, discovered at Tibiscum, adorned with incisions on the border of the disk. Probably this production was the most consistent in Dacia, though unlike the stamped lamps is less relevant. These are the local Roman lamps from Dacia.
MUZEUL OLTENIEI, CRAIOVA – ROMANIA
Roman lamps from Cioroiu Nou (Dolj county, Romania)
Until now, nobody has dealt particularly with the lamps from Cioroiul Nou. I am referring to pieces of burnt clay, but also to pieces of bronze. Those of burnt clay are of Firmalampen type, but also unstamped. This paper tackles with all the lamps discovered at Cioroiul Nou so far. A part of the pieces come from older excavations, the others have been discovered starting from 2000, when the author of this paper took the excavations at Cioroiul Nou again. The types of lamps and also, the stamps of the producers certify the integration of the Roman settlement and fortification from Cioroiul Nou, into the economic life of Dacia.
EMILIAN BOTA, VALENTIN VOIŞIAN, CARMEN CIONGRADI
MUZEUL NAŢIONAL DE ISTORIE A TRANSILVANIEI, CLUJ-NAPOCA – ROMANIA
Lampen aus Napoca, Unirii Platz
Die archäologischen Forschungen an dem Punkt “Piata Unirii“ in Cluj-Napoca (das antike Napoca) wurden in dem Zeitraum 1994-2005 durchgeführt. Wir zeigen römische Lampen aus dieser Siedlung stratigraphisch und chronologisch (2.-3. Jh.) eingerodnet.
CAMELIA BURGHELE MUZEUL JUDEŢEAN DE ISTORIE ŞI ARTA ZALĂU
Therapeutic Fire : therapeutic and magic aspects of fire and light
The present work brings into discussion the anthropologic prospect over fire, approaching many of the hypostases in which it is used both therapeutically or antitherapeutic. The mainly used examples are the following :
the fire used as coal, in the magic-therapeutically ritual of the magic-religious incantations (incantation for sickness) ;
the living fire, burning at the sheepfold and which is also used in many fertility and health rituals ;
those fire hypostases which can be connected through a psychoanalytical analysis, to a cultural gen. In the end, the work tries to establish also the way in which the model of the therapeutically fire from traditional society is found in modernity.
Production et circulation des lampes tardives d’Algerie
Les lampes tardives des musées d’Algérie, produites entre le IVe et VIIe s. et dont 4840 exemplaires sont conservés, se répartissent en trois catégories : 1) Les africaines classiques en terre sigillée rouge orangé de types Hayes I et II et leurs imitations en pâte locale blan-châtre, grise ou brune. 2) Des extrapolations de la lampe africaine classique produites dans trois sites algériens majeurs : Tiddis, Djemila et Hippone. 3) Quatre types originaux enfin : les lampes à ca-nal et à côtes de melon, les lampes à canal courbe, les lampes à pâte claire de Maurétanie Césarienne, et les lampes tardives tournées. Cette communication présente les différents types en focalisant sur production locale et diffusion. Il apparaît que des ateliers algériens antiques ont certainement produit des lampes de types Hayes I et II en terre sigillée claire ainsi qu’en céramique commune. Ils ont aussi produits des extrapolations de ces deux types, restées inédites et présentées ici pour la première fois. Enfin deux types originaux celui des lampes à canal courbe de Maurétanie Césarienne et celui des lampes en pâte claire de la même province mettent en valeur l’importance des ateliers céramiques de Tipasa qui entre le IVe et le VIe s. produi-sirent quantité de lampes (près de 2000 ont été conservées) et dont une partie fut même commercialisée outre-mer. L’opinion longtemps ad-mise de l’hégémonie des lampes rouges (Hayes I et II) sur celles en céramique commune est remise en question puisque le rapport numérique des exemplaires conservés soit 4840 au total, est approximativement de un tiers//deux tiers en faveur des lampes communes. Une autre conclusion retenue est qu’on a sans doute surestimé la dif-fusion des lampes chrétiennes en provenance des grands ateliers tunisiens dans la partie ouest du bassin méditerranéen. Il serait sou-haitable que des analyses physico-chimiques établissent si les nomb-reuses lampes de types Hayes I et II trouvées dans les provinces de la pars occidentalis sont bien tunisiennes ou locales, sans doute les deux mais en quelle proportion ? 75 lampes chrétiennes trouvées dans les vestiges d’un atelier céramique de Timgad ressemblent en tous points à des tunisiennes de même type. Pourquoi des officines hispa-niques, gauloises ou italiques n’auraient-elles pas pu faire (en de-hors des nombreuses imitations plus ou moins grossières connues) de semblables imitations impossibles à distinguer à l’oeil nu de leur mo-dèles africains ? La récente découverte d’un atelier de potier à Séville produisant entre 50 et 70 A.D. de parfaites imitations de lampes italiques dont les répliques trouvées dans d’autres sites hispaniques avaient été jusqu’alors considérées uniquement comme des importations d’Italie, ne peut que donner à réfléchir.
MUZEUL DE ISTORIE TURDA – ROMANIA
Lampes de Potaissa – production locale
Parmi les découvertes archéologiques signalées à Potaissa depuis encore le XIX- ème siècle et arrivées dans le patrimoine des Musées de Turda et de Cluj, on compte de petits récipients utilisés à illuminer – lampes. Ils s’inscrivent dans les typologies connues pour de tels objets utilisés à éclairer . L’analyse attentive de tous les éléments composants des lampes, des ornements et des estampilles, nous a permis à observer des lampes pour lesquelles on s’est servi du même moule si à identifier de cette manières des types caractéristiques pour Potaissa, telles les lampes ayant le disque décoré par une rosette et celles trilychnis à l’estampille C DESSI. Les petites imperfections observées aux rosettes et aux lampes trilychnis à l’estampille laissent voir l’empreinte des ateliers locaux. Les exemplaires à bec court découverts à Potaissa s’individualisent tant pour l’ornement à part, les dimensions, nombre et la pâte dont ils ont été modelés. Ils sont différents des lampes ayant le même type de décor, découverts dans les autres centres de la Dacie. Les lampes trilychnis, à l’anse en forme de feuille ont l’estampille du producteur C DESSI encadrée par deux cercles concentriques applatisés. L’estampille est assez peu claire, indice de la provenance locale et de l’emploi d’un moule assez usé. Les dimensions et la forme du disque encadré par la bande en relief, rapproche jusqu’à l’identification ces lampes. Certainement il y a encore d’autres types de lampes qui proviennent des ateliers de Potaissa, le nombre plus grand des deux types présentés, nous a offert la possibilité de comparer les pièces et d’en saisir les éléments spécifiques.
General secretary of the ILA – SWITZERLAND
Mediterranean lychnological economy : South-North trade in Roman times
Much has been written about the African productions, their presumed invasion of the Mediterranean market. Some has been told about the Egyptian case-study, with the romanized innovative and joyful Alexandria and the conservative, static hinterland. New debates and works have been published about the Near East and its peculiarities, and, finally, some interesting papers about Turkish discoveries recently came out. It is time to summarize all that knowledge, and to resume all the old and new hypothesis abouth all these regions. The aim of our introductory lecture will be to focus on the latest discoveries and studies, in order to build a picture of what we really know about southern mediterranean productions and their exports. We will hence try to give some elements of answers to the following list of questions : What was really produced in Africa in the 2nd-3rd century AD ? How many officinae, in Africa and abroad, had the so-called Tunisian lampmakers like Caius Iunius Alexis or Marcus Novius Iustus ? What is the real importance of the late-antique African productions with Christian iconography for the whole Romanized world ? What happened in Libya before the production of the so-called tripolitanian lamps ? Was Egypt so different of the rest of the Roman Provinces ? Is the “extra-egyptian” Alexandrine world a myth produced by 19th century studies ? Which are the lychnological relations between Egypt and its neighbours ? The Near East is the homeland of the lamps. Of all the lamps, from the Phoenician first clay lamps to the late antique glass lamps. But what do we know about the interaction of this key area with the common Roman productions ? Was the Near East really iconophobic ? Turkey is often defines as the “black hole” of the lychnological science. Much has been produced there, and almost nothing published. But the situation is quickly changing thanks to a new generation of scholars. What are the main elements we can underline of the freshly printed works ? What was really the role of the main Aegean centres in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea import-export ? Too many questions, and I must already stress, no definitive answer. But many new informations to take into consideration. If we can bring some of them to the congressists’ knowledge, and suscitate reflexions, then the goal of our paper will be reached.
SORIN COCIŞ, IONUŢ BOCAN, ADRIAN URSUŢIU INSTITUTUL DE ARHEOLOGIE ŞI ISTORIA ARTEI CLUJ-NAPOCA/ MUZEUL NAŢIONAL DE ISTORIE A ROMÂNIEI – ROMANIA
The stamped lamps from ”Taul Cornii” cemetery at Alburnus Maior
Among the funerary inventory of the plain incineration cemetery ”Taul Cornii” at Alburnus Maior, which was excavated in 2002 by a number of six distinct research collectives of specialists, the lamps are a well represented category. Our paper is discussing only those which have stamps, which it means 41 pieces coming from over 300 graves. All of them belong to the type Loeschcke X. The identified stamps are : AGILIS, CAI, CASSI, FAOR, FESTI, FORTIS, MURRI, OCTAVI, OPTATI, STROBILI, as well as one illegible case.
DEPARTEMENT DES ANTIQUITES EGYPTIENNES, SECTION COPTE, MUSEE DU LOUVRE, PARIS – FRANCE
Mèches de lampe trouvées à Baouit
Les fouilles du monastère de Baouit (Moyenne Egypte) ont repris en 2002. Conduites par le Musée du Louvre et l’Institut français d’Archéologie orientale du Caire, elles se déroulent chaque année au mois de septembre. Christiane Lyon-Caen, dans son résumé, donne quelques informations sur le site. Lors de la campagne de 2005, il a paru intéressant d’entreprendre l’étude des fragments textiles trouvés dans l’Eglise Nord et sur les sondages effectués dans le secteur nord du monastère. Parmi le matériel textile de l’Eglise Nord on a trouvé une douzaine de mèches de lampe, qui seront présentées dans cette communication. Leur datation reste problématique, car l’Eglise Nord a été déjà fouillée au début du xxe siècle et il est difficile de différencier les pièces anciennes (ixe-xe siècles) de celles laissées par les fouilleurs. Ces pièces seront comparées avec des fragments de mèches trouvés à l’intérieur de lampes conservées au Musée du Louvre. Une classification comportant 3 types différents de mèches a pu être établie grâce à l’étude de cette douzaine d’exemplaires.
INSTITUTUL DE ARHEOLOGIE ŞI ISTORIA ARTEI CLUJ-NAPOCA – ROMANIA
Lamps from OL 7 (Building Subterranean/Temple ?) from Porolissum
The archaeological excavations of 2001 in the civil settlement of the large military fort at Porolissum, in the building OL 7, which is situated to the east of the fortification on the Pomet, revealed a construction that must have had a cult destination. This structure has a basement at the level of – 2.50 m below the Roman road. This basement was carefully constructed, having two rows of columns. The artefacts discovered there are not connected with the daily life, and we believe that this is a subterranean temple. Inside the temple were discovered 15 lamps until now, together with various jewelleries made from metal and ceramic objects. Their state of conservation is rather poor, but all of them were graphically reconstructed, offering the possibility for typological and chronological analyses. Many of these types of lamps have been previously discovered at Porolissum in other structures, as well as in other military sites, towns and rural settlements from Roman Dacia. In the same time, these pieces are common for other Roman provinces, during the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD. On the other hand this significant number of lamps from the structure OL 7, besides that the excavations are still running, suggests that these were used for illuminating a large subterranean space. In the same time, the lamps must have been offered as votives inside the temple.
MARIANA CRÎNGUŞ, ATALIA ŞTEFĂNESCU UNIVERSITATEA DE VEST, TIMIŞOARA – ROMANIA
The lamps with representations of deities from Roman Dacia
Among the various types of Roman lamps from Dacia there is a small number of pieces with representations of gods. Most often is depicted Amor, but also other Roman or Oriental deities, such as Jupiter, Hercules, Liber Pater, Jupiter Ammon, Serapis. Most of the lamps come from Apulum or Ulpia Traiana Sarmisegetusa, but also from other sites. There are lamps belonging to types I, VII or X, products from the workshops of Atimetus, Campilius, Cassius, Decimus, Favor, Festus, Fronto or Lucius. Some are imports, others are provincial imitations. Our contribution will approach both the iconographical aspects and the explanation of the particular use of these lamps, according to their place of discovery
VIORICA CRIŞAN, CRISTINA POPESCU
MUZEUL NAŢIONAL DE ISTORIE A TRANSILVANIEI, CLUJ-NAPOCA – ROMANIA
The Hellenistic lamps discovered in the Geto-Dacian settlements from Romania
The present paper is centered around the Hellenistic lamps discovered in the daco-getic settlements from Poiana (the county of Galati) and Racatau (the county of Bacau), viewed from the point of view of the importation and imitation phenomenon. We have chosen these settlements due to the fact that they stand out through the large number of Hellenistic pottery objects discovered here, and especially through the imitations made after these. The Hellenistic lamps from these settlements are few in number and, unlike other artefacts discovered here, for example the vessels, the lamps are not imitated on a large scale. We can mention in the case of the above mentioned settlements only one attempt of imitation, a hand-made lamps discovered at Poiana, made of very poor quality fabrics and the form of which is not at all well made. In conclusion we can say that, unlike other Hellenistic imitated pottery forms (megarian bowls, kantharos, etc.) the lamps does not enter the catalogue of the daco-getic potters. This situation can be explained probably by the fact that used other lighting objects (the “dacian cups” may be one example), and less by the level of technical knowledge ; the megarian bowls of local production being a proof that the technique of mould-making vessels was known in the workshops from the above mentioned settlements.
DIANA DOBREVA, KRASSIMIRA KOSTOVA
/ HISTORY MUSEUM OF SREDETS – BULGARIA
Roman, late Roman and early Byzantine lamps from the territory of a National Archaeological Reserve “ Deultum – Debelt”
The subject of the present paper are the finds of clay lamps, resulted from the archeological excavations on the territory of the roman colonia Deultum and later early Byzantine Town Debelt (today by the village Debelt, region of Bourgas, Southeast Bulgaria). The examined archeological material is classified on the base of characteristics like technique, type, form, chronology. The distinct groups of lamps presented in a catalogue dated between the Ith and the VIIth century A. D. Analyzing the finds the authors delineate zones with local imitations and modifications of roman lamps and offer existing of a ceramic atelier near by the early Byzantine Debelt for producing late roman and byzantine lamps of the type so called “barge formed lamps”. The distribution of its production on the territory of the Town makes thinking that it is directed mostly to the local market. The concentration of analogical and similar types of lamps on the territory of the ancient settlements in this area helps thinking about the importance of this production center and its role in the economic life of the region of Southeast Thracia and the west coast of the Black Sea. An attempt of a complete characteristic of delineated commercial relations of the roman colonia Deultum and early Byzantine Debelt based on the examine finds is made ; its influence over other centers in the province of Thracia, Moesia Inferior and other Balkan provinces. As an additional result the traditional contacts of ancient Deultum and early Byzantine Debelt with Aegean centers and Asia Minor are confirmed.
MATEI DRÎMBĂREAN, CONSTANTIN INEL
MUZEUL NAŢIONAL AL UNIRII, ALBA IULIA – ROMANIA
Roman lamps discovered at Alburnus Maior.Archeological investigations of the National Museum ofUnification Alba Iulia between 2000-2004
This study seeks to analyze Roman lamps unearthed at Alburnus Maior (Roşia Montanã) in the sector assigned to the research team of the National Museum of Unification between 2000-2004. The archaeological research was carried out within the framework of the National Program of Research Alburnus Maior initiated in 2001, under the coordination of the National Museum from Bucharest and with participation of teams of archaeologists from specialized institutions from Romania and abroad. In 2000, combined teams of the National Museum of Unification Alba Iulia and the National Institute of Historical Monuments Bucharest made archaeological investigations aiming to identify the areas holding archaeological remains from Alburnus Maior. With this occasion are presented the Roman lamps discovered during campaign of 2000. All the objects presented were found in the Roman necropolises from “Hop-Gãuri”, “Carpeni”, “Taul Corna” and “Ţarina”. These were incineration necropolises belonging to the Illyrian-Dalmatian communities of miners settled at Alburnus Maior for gold mining. The lecture consists of a short presentation of the importance and usefulness of this pottery (lucernae) in graves. This presentation intends to make a quantitative and typological analysis and to find out what is the proportion of this type of objects within the funerary collection.
WARSZAWA UNIVERSITY, WARSZAW – POLAND
Late antique lamps from Novae
From the end of III c. AD legionary fortress I Italica change in civil town. This long-time process was observed not only in architectonical changes. Many finds have had civil character, some others have changed. The lamps were one of the type of finds which have been informed us, about changes in social and religion every-day life in antique Novae. In paper will be present different kinds of lamps which changed, because changes of type of the settlement. Other lamps were introduced because new religion – it can be seen mainly in ornamentation. Other problem is to date of finds. Some contexts at Novae bring new light for this problem.
MARIANA EGRI, AUREL RUSTOIU
TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE – ENGLAND / INSTITUTUL DE ARHEOLOGIE SI ISTORIA ARTEI, CLUJ-NAPOCA – ROMANIA
Roman lamps from the pre-Roman Dacia
During the excavations made in different Dacian sites, were found many ceramic and some bronze Roman lamps. Most of them are coming from the sites outside the Carpathians, with a flourishing commercial life. Few others were found in centres of power like the fortified settlements or the citadels from Transylvania. Their presence determines a series of questions, regarding the character of such imports, and also their users. Dacia was not an olive oil producer so the fuel for such lamps, an expensive one, had to be imported. Following this, and looking also at the number of finds from each site, we may presume that lamps were mainly secondary load alongside other goods. Many lamps were found in the centres where the imported wine amphorae were traded. The users of these objects were either the locals accustomed with them, or the Roman merchants and artisans established there. In the inner Carpathian area, the number of finds is smaller. In this case, it is hard to believe that these lamps were a result of the trade. More probably these were personal belongings of the Roman artisans who worked for the local rulers. Another possibility is that some of them were brought individually as curiosities or souvenirs, maybe from one of the above-mentioned commercial centres. Not at last, the bronze lamps could have been objects of prestige, which were owned by the local rulers.
MUZEUL DUNARII DE JOS, CALARASI-ROMANIA
Lampes romaines et byzantines provénant du village Izvoarele, com. Canlia, dpt. Constanţa
L’auteur présent un nombre de 36 lampes fabriquées à la roue ou en moules. Elles ont été découvertes fortuitement dans un lieu appellé Cale Gheorghi, à 2,5 km en aval du village Izvoarele et datent de la période du IIème jusqu’au VIIème siècles. Dans ce lieu connu par l’ancien toponym Parjoaia des éboulements des rives du Danube font apparaître de nombreuses traces de culture matérielle datant du VIème et du VII ème siècles, ainsi que celles d’une fortification identifiée avec la Sucidava moesica.
MUZEUL JUDEŢEAN DE ISTORIE BISTRŢA – ROMANIA
Les lampes romaines en bronze provenant du camp militaire d’Ilişua
Les recherches archéologiques plus anciennes ou plus récentes faites dans le champ fortifie romain d’Ilişua ont révèle l’existence de nombreux et varies vestiges qui attestent à profusion le standard de vie de l’habitat de ce centre militaire situe sur le limes du Nord de la province Dacia. Les 5 lampes en bronze en sont un exemple. Variées du point de vue typologique, les 5 pièces d’Ilişua représentent des importation italiques, arrivées en même temps que la troupe établie dans le camp fortifie, si l’on prend en compte leur position stratigraphique et la datation chronologique des pièces (I-er siècle après J.ch – début du II-e siècle après J.Ch). Le seul centre comparable concernant le nombre de lampes en bronze de la Dacia intracarpatique reste seulement Potaissa. Cela s’explique par la présence d’une troupe de cavalerie, ALA Tungrorum Frontoniana bien rémunérée, ou bien éventuellement par les incendies qui ont affecte le camp fortifie et à la suite desquelles de nombreux artefacts sont restes sous les décombres. Trois de ces pièces appartiennent au type piriforme, Ibidemun ou deux becs, la quatrième, au type de lampe à volutes et la cinquième, fragmentaire, appartient au type de lampe à bassin ovoïde, décore de feuilles d’acanthe et pointes à tête pyramidale.
UNIVERSITATEA BABEŞ- BOLYAI, CLUJ-NAPOCA – ROMANIA
The association of offerings in graves from Roman Dacia. I. Lamps, unguentaria and coins – elements of Romanism ?
The lamps appear in the Greek cemeteries in 4th c. BC, in Levant in the 3rd millennium BC, in the Romanized Etruscan tomb of the Volumnii’s of the 1st c. BC., near Peruggia. At Rome and in Italy chandeliers and torches are frequently depicted on the funerary urns. Although this custom was not a wide spread phenomenon in within the Roman provinces it still remains a Roman funerary practice. Some of the lamps indicate that they were used only once, therefore were bought for the funerary ceremony. One of the Roman funerary customs is the oiling of the body so it would decompose slower but it is also part of the funerary ritual. The perfume spilt on the corpse while this was cremated had the purpose to blur the smell of the burnt flesh. When the perfume was poured into an unguentarium near the corpse had the role to keep the demons away, as well as an act of piety to the shades of the departed. This practice is documented by a large number of ancient literary and archaeological sources. Some recent studies have demonstrated that within the Mediterranean area the custom of placing coin in a grave have appeared before the birth of the myth of Charon’s obolon. At the same time, other populations (e.g. the Sarmatians) have this ritual but without any connection with ferryman fee. The placing of coins in graves cane interpreted in various ways : pars pro toto, amulets, offering to calm the hostile spirits, a fee so the dead must be kept in the underworld. Some scholars consider that the lamps, the unguentaria and the coins are part of the funerary ritual and were introduced by the Romans in the provinces with no tradition of a classic civilization. In this study we look to the association frequency of these artefacts in the grave from Roman Dacia and their meaning in the funerary context.
PETRE GHERGHE, MIRCEA NEGRU
UNIVERSITATEA CRAIOVA / UNIVERSITATEA SPIRU HARET, BUCUREŞTI – ROMANIA
Roman Lamps discovered in Sucidava
Sucidava was a Roman settlement and fort. Its name came from Suci (a Dacian tribe) and dava (Dacian name for a fort). Even it was only a vicus, Sucidava had a rural territory like a municipium in the Late Roman Period. In Late Roman and Early Byzantine Periods, it was one of the heads of bridges on the north bank of Danube River. In the Constantine reign there was built a bridge between Sucidava and Oescus over the Danube. Here we present a group of 14 Firmalampen. Most of them could be identified as belonging to the Loeschcke X type, other ones are only small fragments that could not be identified as type. However, they also are Firmalampen. The studied Firmalampen have the stamps of AP[RIO] (?), CASSI, [DIO]CLI, FLAVI, and FORTIS. The rest of them had no stamp or they are not readable. Fabrics Some lamps are made from a well-mixed paste of brick or brick light color that had a red paint on their surface. The other ones are made from a yellowish paste and they have no paint. First category contains imported lamps at Sucidava, the other ones lamps are very probably local products. One sample of the local made lamps has a FLAVI stamp. At Sucidava were discovered three pottery kilns. One of them was dated in the second century AD, the second at the middle of third century AD. A pottery kiln discovered in the 19th century could not be precisely dated, but it belongings to Roman or Byzantine Period. Chronology The Firmalampen found in the Sucidava territory were dated in the second and third centuries AD.
INSTITUT FÜR KULTURGESCHICHTE DER ANTIKE, WIEN – AUSTRIA
The exports of Hellenistic Ephesian lamp-workshops and their influence on the local production in the East
In the 2nd half of the 2nd century B.C. the lamp-workshops in and around the Town of Ephesus (Asia Minor) developed a new group of Hellenistic mould-made lamps, which are known as Ephesus-lamps. These lamps with their characteristic features (the specific form, the grey clay and dark slip and the immense number of different motives of relief-decoration on the shoulders and the nozzle) can be divided into several different types. The dating of closed contexts in Ephesus allows us to establish a new chronological sequence for the introduction of each single type. The big number of potters’ signatures makes it obvious that the lamps were produced in various workshops. During the first half of the 1st century Ephesus-lamps were exported in large amounts throughout the eastern Mediterranean. The free trading port on Delos played an important role in the negotiation and distribution of these lamps. Aside from the closer surrounding of Ephesus (Metropolis, Tire, Priene, Milet) the products reached cities via the regional trade (Troy, Pergamon, Labraunda, Iasos) as well as via the long distance trade (North Greece, Athens, Crete, Cyprus, the Black Sea Coast). Due to missing dating criteria in many places the lamps have been dated as a uniform group from the middle of the 2nd century B.C. until the beginning of the 1st century A.D. On several find spots a considerable influence of the imported Ephesian-lamps on the local markets can be stated. After the importation a lot of local lamp-workshops started to imitate Ephesus-lamps. These imitations and variants can differ from the original Ephesus-lamps in their fabric, the form or the relief-decoration (Athens, Corinth). Local production is also attested by the finds of moulds, as can be seen in Pergamon. The refinements in the chronology of the Ephesus-lamps in Ephesus itself offer an important contribution to the revision of dated contexts on other find spots around the eastern Mediterranean, where these strongly export orientated products became a very popular lighting device in late Hellenistic times.
UNIVERSITATEA BABEŞ- BOLYAI, CLUJ-NAPOCA – ROMANIA
The Late-Roman Glazed Pottery. II. The Lamps
For the provinces from the Middle and Lower Danube the Pannonian glazed pottery is gaining more and more importance in the Late Roman archaeology. As the archaeological excavations brings to light more and more sites of 4th century AD (fortifications, settlements, cemeteries, towns etc.) the importance of the glazed material increases. In previous studies (Gudea 1987, Gudea 1987 a) the author has tried to point out some aspects concerning : the origins of the Pannonian glazed pottery ; the area where it was produced ; the most intensive spreading area ; the dating ; and even some remarks on the typology of some shape of vessels. This study is focused only on the glazed lamps dated in the 4th century AD from the provinces of Valeria, Pannonia II, Moesia Prima, Dacia Ripensis and Moesia II. Based on a part of the present historical references (but not all of them !) the author tries to point out aspects such as : the origins of such lamps ; the area of production ; the most intensive spreading area of the glazed lamps and a typology of them. The base for dating is constituted by the lamps coming from well dated fortifications (especially the quadriburgia) from the provinces of Moesia I and Dacia Ripensis but also from other types of sites where we can discuss on a relative known chronological frame. The study also presents a repertory, a technical and methodological analyze and, of course, a historical interpretation. Historically speaking, the presence of the glazed lamps is a very interesting phenomenon : a. after the end of the 3rd century AD all the typical 2nd -3rd c. shapes and types of lamps have disappeared ; b. in the 4th century AD the glazed lamps are overwhelming almost entirely the material for lighting ; c. apart from the glazed lamps can be seen also the ordinary ones of the same shape, in fact imitations of the firsts (if the process was not the other way round) ; d. the glazed lamps are not elements to reflect the social transformations within the Roman Empire, respectively the Christianity. All lamps are simple undecorated pieces, without any Christian symbols ; e. another observation that can be pointed out is that Christian lamps of the 4th century AD did not pass into the maximal spreading area of the glazed lamps. Bibliography
Gudea 1997 = Nicoale Gudea, Pannonian glazed pottery – a view from the East, in Rei Cretariae Romanae Fautorum. Acta XXl-VXXi’7, 1987, p. 409-436. Kovács 1992 = Peter Kovács (Hrsg.), Glasierte Keramik in Pannonien, Szekesfehervar 1982.
MUSÉE DE BAVAY – FRANCE
Les lampes á huile du ” sanctuaire de Cybèle ” á Lyon d’environ 50 av. J-C à 15/20 ap. J-C.
La fouille du prétendu sanctuaire de Cybèle, situé sur la colline de Fourvière à Lyon, 3 livré un lot conséquent de lampes à huile (1732 individus). Le site présentait une stratigraphie complète et a livré une chronologie absolue qui a permis l’analyse des lampes sur 70 ans d’occupation à Lugdunum d’environ 50 av. J-C à 15/20 ap. J-C. La synthèse de ces recherches constitue un bon référent pour caractériser les lampes à huile de la région lyonnaise, de la fondation de la colonie jusqu’à sa consécration en tant que capitale à l’époque augusto-tibérienne, cela en plusieurs points. La typologie a tout d’abord pu être enrichie de plusieurs formes ou variantes jusque là inconnues, ce qui apporte de précieuses informations sur les modes de production et d’importation des lampes notamment pour ces époques dont les vestiges sont souvent trop ténus. En outre, la chronologie de certains types jusque là datés d’après des contextes archéologiques très larges peut être précisée de manière plus certaine. Par ailleurs, l’étude iconographique permet d’avoir un aperçu de l’évolution des préoccupations culturelles selon les motifs privilégiés, ainsi, on observe une progression des thèmes : de décors simples, aux thèmes nobles, on va vers des reliefs élaborés aux motifs plus populaires. L’iconographie permet aussi de mesurer la qualité de fabrication, le soin apporté à la finition selon les décennies. Des hypothèses sur les lieux de provenance seront également avancées notamment sur la différenciation entre importations italiques et productions gauloises et sur le moment où les ateliers locaux prennent le relais des centres de productions méditerranéens. L’étude met en relief l’importance des lampes à huile comme indicateur de la romanisation : ces lampes constituent en effet un témoin inédit des prémices de la diffusion de l’éclairage en Gaule interne, Lyon étant le site le plus au nord de la Gaule où l’on ait retrouvé autant de lampes pour la période de la conquête au début de L’Empire.
ANDREAS HENSEN / GERWULF SCHNEIDER
KURPFÄLZISCHES MUSEUM, HEIDELBERG / – GERMANY
Imported Lamps of the Roman cemetery in Heidelberg. Results of the chemical analysis
One of the cemeteries belonging to the Roman auxiliary fort and the vicus in Heidelberg could be excavated completely. The grave-goods of some 1400 burials are currently being evaluated in a research project funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Landesdenkmalamt Baden-Württemberg. About 45 % of these graves contain one or more cremated or uncremated lamps. Compared with burial customs at other sites of comparable size and significance in Germania Superior this is a relatively high proportion. The role of the lamps as grave-goods had already been the subject of a lecture at the 1st ILA Congress in Nyon. In the meantime we could get more precise evidence for the workshops the lamps derive from. From a total number of almost 700 lamps exposed in the magazines of the Kurpfälzisches Museum in Heidelberg we selected a series of 25 Firmalampen for analysis. These different looking samples were analysed at the Institute of Chemistry at Freie Universität in Berlin. The chemical compositions were determined by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. As a result, six different chemical groups could be distinguished. Four of them originate from workshops in well-known lampmaking centres with reliable reference groups.
The influence of Hellenistic oil-lamps on the production of local Judean lamps
Two types of local lamps were produced in Judea during the Hellenistic period (3rd -1st c. BCE) : wheel-made and mould-made. The wheel-made lamp, which developed from local traditions, was a folded and pinched lamp, produced mainly in the 2nd c. BCE, and was in use continuously throughout the first half of the 1st c. BCE. The lamp was made of light brown ware in the form of small bowl with a round or flat base. Its rim was eithewr turned inward or pinched. Alongside with the traditional folded lamp we find a wheel-made round-shouldered lamp which is a regional copy of an Attic prototype. By the beginning of the 2nd c. BCE, imported Hellenistic mould-made radial lamps of Broneer type 18 (Broneer 1930, nn. 301-4) were found in most of the Hellenistic towns such as Dor, Samaria, Askelon and Asdod. These lamps were decorated with human figures and pagan symbols, which were excluded by the Jewish population. During the Hashmonean period, 2nd c. BCE, the local pinched lamp was in use along with a new type of lamp that was developed in Judea, influenced by the Hellenistic radial lamp. The Judean radial lamp, as referred to in the final Masada report (Barag & Hershkowitz 1994, pp. 22-24) is mould-made of reddish-pink ware, thick walls, mostly with a brown or red slip on its exterior upper part. Ridges surrounded its rim, and its shoulder is decorated with radial lines, additional circles and stylized floral motifs but no figures. Its base is either flat or has a low ring. The nozzle is either long or short with a round wick-hole. The Jewish radial lamp was in common use in Jerusalem and in Judea during the Herodian period, during the 1st c. BCE and disappeared by the 1st c. CE. The appearence of the local lamp, so similar to the imported lamp, show us the influence of international cultural connections on the use of local lamps.
CONSTANZE HÖPKEN, MANUEL FIEDLER
UNIVERSITÄT ZU KÖLN/RÖMISCH-GERMANISCHES MUSEUM KÖLN – GERMANIA
Roman Lamps deposits in the Domnus et Domna sanctuary in Sarmizegetusa / RO
Excavations at Sarmizegetusa, Roman province Dacia, were undertaken in the North Western part of the area sacra east of the Liber Pater-temple. In this area a small temple was revealed, dedicated to Domnus and Domna. In and outside the temple several ritual deposits with lamps were excavated. In front of the building groups of lamps and beakers, each one arranged as pairs, were found. Underneath the largest group of twelve pairs a concentration of calcified bones of a calf came to light. The burning traces of the lamps an beakers show, that they were exposed to a fire. West of the temple some lamps were laid down in a pit together with half a mandible of a cow, respectively of a cow and a pig. Inside the temple in the entrance area, lamps and cantharoi were arranged together with some coins in a pit around half a mandible again. The lamps show traces of being used as such on the purpose of giving light. The three types of deposition show different offering patterns : The calf might represent the initial sacrifice of the temple, the other offerings could be laid down by individuals or small groups of dedicants during the temple’s use.
ITALY Lucerne e rotte commerciali tra l’Area Vesuviana e l’Africa Settentrionale tra Tardo Antico ed Alto Medioevo.
L’Area Vesuviana è molto famosa per la grande eruzione che nel 79 d.C. ricoprì le antiche città di Pompei, Ercolano, Stabiae ed Oplontis. Dopo la grande eruzione del Vesuvio, l’antica Stabiae è la prima delle città della quale abbiamo notizia ed infatti l’imperatore Adriano ricostruì la strada che collegava Stabiae con Nocera. Uno dei motivi della rinascita di Stabiae dovette essere proprio il legame con Nocera poiché questa città si serviva del porto di Stabiae. La stessa Nocera quindi dovette favorire molto la rinascita di Stabiae, per cui già nel II sec. d.C. il porto di Stabiae era nuovamente in funzione, come sappiamo da una notizia di Galeno. Altri elementi importanti dovettero essere anche la presenza di fonti di acqua potabile e la diffusione del Cristianesimo, avvenuta grazie alla presenza di una statio all’interno del Sinus Stabianus della classis Misenatis, alla quale appartenevano molti marinai orientali. La diffusione del Cristianesimo dovette avere una grande importanza poiché a Stabiae fu creata una diocesi, il cui primo vescovo, Ursus, è attestato nel 499. Pochi però sono i rinvenimenti di oggetti databili a partire dal II sec. d.C. per cui la presenza di venticinque lucerne (ventiquattro lucerne fittili ed una lucerna in bronzo, databili tra il 50 ed il VII sec. d.C.) recuperate durante gli scavi sotto la Cattedrale di Castellammare di Stabia ha una grande importanza. Tredici lucerne furono prodotte nell’Africa Settentrionale e si datano tra il 220 ed il VII sec. d.C. Quest’aspetto è molto importante poiché ci permette di ipotizzare l’esistenza di una rotta commerciale tra la Campania e l’Africa settentrionale e lungo questa rotta il porto di Stabiae era una delle tappe. Stabiae quindi doveva essere una delle tappe della rotta seguita dai tanti cristiani, tra i quali anche molti senatori e notabili, che scapparono dall’Africa Settentrionale durante le persecuzioni di Genserico (429-477) e di suo figlio Unnerico (477-484). Secondo chi scrive, un’altra tappa di questa rotta in area vesuviana poteva essere l’attuale Torre del Greco, poiché anche nel suo territorio era presente una fonte di acqua potabile, non lontana dalla costa. Inoltre dal territorio di Torre del Greco provengono materiali databili tra l’epoca Tardo-Antica e quella Alto Medioevale per cui è possibile ipotizzare, come sostengono alcuni studiosi, che Torre del Greco si sorta in epoca bizantina come presidio contro i Longobardi. Lamps and trade routes between Vesuvian Area and North Africa during Late Roman Age and High Medieval Age.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT Vesuvian Area is very famous for the big 79 A.D. eruption which covered Pompeii, Herculanuum Stabiae and Oplontis, Roman towns in South of the Neapolitan Gulf. After the big eruption of Vesuvius, the ancient Stabiae, nowadays Castellammare di Stabia, was the first of the towns to rise again. In fact we know the imperator Hadrian rebuilt the road between Stabiae and Nuceria, the most important town in the Vesuvian Area. Probably the rebirth of Stabiae must be connected to Nuceria. In fact Stabiae was the ancient port of Nuceria and had a very important role for the trade of this town. In fact in the II century A:D., it was possible to arrive by a boat in the port of Stabiae, like Galenus, wrote. Stabiae was very famous in the Roman Age also its springs which probably had a very important role for the rebirth of Stabiae and the Christianity arrived in this town very early, may be for the presence of the sailors of the Classis Misenatis, who arrived from East. The diffusion of the Christianity was very important for Stabiae like the presence of the Diocese proves. But we haven’t many news about the life in the Vesuvian Area after the big 79 A.D. eruption, then the discovery of 25 lamps is very important. The lamps were discovered during the excavation under the Cathedral of Castellammare di Stabia. We can date these lamps between 50 and the II century A.D. 13 lamps were made in North Africa between 220 and VII century A.D. This aspect is very important because we can suppose a trade route from North Africa to Campania and in this route the port of Stabiae was a very important stage for the springs of drinkable water. Probably Stabiae also the modern Torre del Greco between Castellammare di Stabia and Neaples could be another stage of this route. In fact, along the cost of Torre del Greco, there was a spring of drinkable water and in the land around the modern Torre del Greco during excavation, many objects of Late Roman Age or Medieval Age were discovered.
DAN ISAC, CRISTIAN-AUREL ROMAN
UNIVERSITATEA BABES-BOLYAI / MUZEUL NAŢIONAL DE ISTORIE A TRANSILVANIEI, CLUJ-NAPOCA – ROMANIA
Samvm-Căşei, Lamps from Roman camp and vicus
After years of excavation and a relevant numbers of roman lamps discovered, we can put together roman lamps from military camp (castra) and vicus to express local lamp production and consumption at Samum Casei, Cluj County, Romania. The both parts castra -vicus create a living image of lyghting in military surroundings.
ESZTER ISTVANOVITS, PINTYE GABOR
Ligthing devices at the Sarmatians of the Upper Tisza Region
Our knowledge on the lighting devices of the Sarmatians of the Carpathian Basin is very superficial. It is based mainly on the archaeological finds. Though a significant amount of Roman finds is known in the material of the Great Hungarian Plain, lucernas got to the Barbarians very rarely. It seems to us that Sarmatians made lighting devices themselves. These are mostly handmade, rude clay pieces. In our presentation we would like to present some of such new finds.
DEPT. OF CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY AND ANCIENT HISTORY, STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY – SUEDEN
Athenian Lamps in the Black Sea
Archaeological excavations from the 19th century until today around the Black Sea have provided numerous finds of Athenian lamps, especially in Thracia, Moesia, Dacia, and in the northern coast of the Black Sea. Products of several 3rd and 4th century AD lamp workshops, especially those of Bromios, Zosimos, Elpidephoros, Eutyches, Leonteus, Pireithos, Preimos, Rouphos, Stratolaos and Relief Leaf have been found. Furthermore, there is ample evidence for production of local copies around the Black Sea.
In this paper, the distribution, copying and adaptation of Late Roman Athenian lamps for local production will be discussed, and the characteristics of these local copies will be presented. Another important aspect is the chronology of the Athenian lamps found around the Black Sea and what it can tell us about the trade connections between Athens and the Black Sea, especially in the Late Roman and the Early Byzantine period.
Greek lamps from the South-eastern part of Chersonesos Taurica
Chersonesos Taurica is famous for rich archeological material excavated here and lamps are not an exception in the point. Unfortunately a lot of collections being stored in the museum have never been published. Therefore it is necessary and significant to show these new artifacts to the public and this is an aim of the paper. Presented collection includes Late Archaic, Classic and Hellenistic lamps and their fragments discovered in the South-eastern part of Chersonesos during excavations that took place in 1907-1914 under the direction of R.H.Leper and in 1974-2003 under the direction of M.I.Zolotarev. There is no complicated list of parallels for each lamp in the paper but references only to the major works as it was important to determine chronological limits of collection. An extreme value of the collection lies in the fact that it contains a new group of material dated back to Late Archaic epoch that is from the last quarter of the 6th to the first quarter of the 5th century B. C. These lamps along with already published material are the perfect illustration to the theory worked out by Yu.Vinogradov and M.Zolotarev who claimed that Chersonesos was founded in the last quarter of the 6th century B. C. Furthermore an important index is a high rate of Attic production among lighting devices of Early Hellenistic time and less even in comparison with the Bosporian kingdom quantity of local production.
INSTITUTE OF ARCHAEOLOGY, UKRAINIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCE (CRIMEAN BRANCH) – UKRAINE
Les lampes Palaimonion chez les Grecs et Romains en Chersonèse Taurique
Chersonèse Taurique, dont les ruines se trouvent à l’extremité sud-ouest de la Crimée (la banlieue de la ville actuelle de Sevastopol), était une des plus importantes villes antiques de la région nord-pontique. La ville possédait un vaste territoire suburbain (chora), essentiellement la péninsule de Heraclée, où on a reperé de nombreuses traces d’unités agricoles. Parmi les differentes categories de trouvailles mises au jour au cours des fouilles récentes il y a aussi de lampes en ceramique de type “Palaimonion”. Il s’agit de lampes à dessus ouvert, canal haut et large, avec une ouverture circulaire, réservoir à paroi haute et incurvée, fond plat. On connait de telles lampes aussi bien dans la ville que dans son territoire rural, y compris aussi sur le poste de guet militaire romain de la colline Kasatzkaya. Malheureusement, aucune de ces lampes n’a été decouvert dans un contexte bien daté. Pour la plupart de trouvailles les fouilleurs proposent une chronologie allant du IIIème au IVème siècle de n.è. Or, sur quelques sites de chora les lampes en question ont été trouvé dans les niveaux datables du II-III siècles de n.è. Les lampes “Palaimonion”, bien connues dans la Méditerranée, sont très rares à Chersonèse et restent jusqu’aujourd’hui totalement absentes sur les autres sites archéologiques de la Crimée. Il est bien possible que les lampes à dessus ouvert de type “Palaimonion” aient été fabriqué à Chersonèse sous l’influence de formes greco-romaines.
UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI
Glass lamp typology and chronology from Jabal Harûn, Petra, Jordan
The glass material from six excavations seasons (1998 – 2003) of the Finnish Jabal Harûn Project, especially from the area of the church and the chapel at the monastic complex on Jabal Harûn near Petra in Jordan, has now been studied and a local typology and chronology of glass lamps used in the ecclesiastical buildings have been established. 9 subtypes of single suspended lamps, 2 subtypes of single suspended globular lamps, and 4 subtypes of polycandelon type lamps have been identified among the excavated glass material, partly representing a chronological sequence of use in different phases of the chapel and church at the site, spanning from the first half of the 5th century AD to at least the 8th / 9th century AD.
BIRGITTA LINDROS WOHL
LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA – USA
Sicilian Lamps” really from Sicily ?
This paper attempts to clarify an old mistake of lamp Identification and provide some corrective suggestions about their provenance. A small group of late antique, circular lamps, found at corinth, was by broneer (1930) given a sicilian origin, based on three such lamps found also in syracuse. Since 1930, however, many more have been discovered, pointing to an overwhelming presence in the peloponnese. The clay is sometimes unusual for Greece in that period, as is the décor which is partially related to north african ceramic stamps, a Puzzling relationship which will be analyzed and discussed.
MUSEE DU LOUVRE
Les lampes du monastére de Baiout (Moyenne Egypte) presentation de trois ans de fouilles
Le deuxième congrès de notre association sera pour la section copte du département des antiquités égyptiennes du musée du Louvre l’occasion de présenter les premiers résultats des fouilles du chantier de Baouit (Moyenne-Egypte). Grâce à une convention entre le musée du Louvre et l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire en 2002, notre section a pu reprendre les fouilles du site monastique de Baouit abandonné depuis un siècle, et cela au rythme d’un mois par an. Le site se trouve sur la rive gauche du Nil, proche du site d’Hermopolis Magna (el-Ashmunein) et du site d’Antinoé (Cheik Abadé). Occupé entre le 4ème et probablement le 1 lème siècle ce site serait selon toute probabilité celui du monastère fondé par l’Apa Apollo à l’extrême fin du 4ème siècle. Au fil des siècles le monastère prit une extension très importante, puisque une prospection magnétique a pu confirmer l’existence de deux, peut-être trois églises, et de très nombreux ermitages étendus sur une surface de. Les fouilles se concentrent actuellement sur deux points essentiels :
une église, l’église Nord , peut-être dédiée à l’archange Michel ( graffiti, inscriptions peintes et iconographie), où ont été mises au jour la majorité des lampes du site. Actuellement le contexte chronologique se situe autour du lOème siècle.
Et des bâtiments de stockage (Sondage 3) comprenant, pour autant que l’on puisse se prononcer avant la fin de la fouille : un groupe compact formé de quatre pièces, vraisemblablement des resserres, situées symétriquement de part et d’autre d’une grande salle rectangulaire ( Axe Ouest-Est) aux murs ornés de peintures (Cycle de la naissance du Christ, mur Nord et prophètes, mur Sud), sur un axe Nord-Sud. Vers l’ouest deux ou trois pièces contiguës, l’une est manifestement un oratoire, modeste, les deux autres ne sont pas encore nettement identifiées. A l’Ouest semble s’étendre une vaste cour, et dans l’angle Sud-Ouest de celle-ci, une porterie ? Le contexte chronologique fondé sur l’architecture : tessons de céramique consolidant la voûte et présence de très nombreuses amphores LRA 7 privilégie le 7ème siècle. Ce chantier a fourni peu de lampes mais nous ne sommes encore qu’au niveau corniches des portes. Le propos de cette communication sera donc une présentation du matériel lychnologique, d’aspect varié puisque nous avons aussi bien des lampes moulées que des tournées, des coupelles comme des lampes fermées et beaucoup de lampes de seconde intention : des valves de coquillages (spathopsis rubens, de larges bivalves sorties du Bar Youssouf proche).
MUZEUL JUDEŢEAN DE ISTORIE, TÂRGU-MUREŞ – ROMANIA
Lamps discovered in the Roman Settlement of Cristeşti
On the left bank of the Mureş River, in a place called “The Earthen Fortress”, there are the vestiges of a large Roman settlement, spreading over a surface of several hectares. First recorded in 1870, when the visible remains of a Roman road were also mentioned, this settlement has always caught the attention of the researchers through a great number of discoveries. Placed on the secondary road, which separated from the imperial road at Salinae, going along the Mureş Valley (the Războieni – Lunca Mureşului – Bogata – Brâncoveneşti itinerary), the vicus of Cristeşti began its existence soon after the organization of the province. The settlement of Cristeşti is known as one of the greatest centers of ceramic production in Roman Dacia. The pottery found here is outstanding, not only because of its large quantity, but also due to its wide range of shapes which, implicitly, leads us to the multiple functions it accomplished. The 6 furnaces, together with the abundant pottery material and the numerous moulds discovered, point to the existence of a veritable local pottery “industry” which covered not only the needs of the settlement, but spread out to the neighboring zones as well. In all, 62 lamps were discovered at Cristeşti, out of which 19 lamps belong to the Firmalampen type, but a part of them are of local production. Some of them are imported as luxury goods. The frequency of imitations and their quality illustrate the craftsmanship of the local ceramists who were producing high quality copies of certain famous products. Of certain local production are the lamps stamped by CAI, GIP, Titus, AQVIN, AONIA and the lamps unstamped ones also.
FELIX MARCU, OVIDIU ŢENTEA
MUZEUL NAŢIONAL DE ISTORIE A TRANSILVANIEI, CLUJ-NAPOCA / MUZEUL NAŢIONAL DE ISTORIE A ROMÂNIEI, BUCUREŞTI – ROMANIA
The lamps of the Roman cemeteries at Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa (Dacia)
The paper will take into consideration the lamps of the Roman necropolis from Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa with a special view on the discoveries made in the last years on the excavation of a part of the eastern cemetery from the Roman town. The previous excavations in the cemeteries around the town yield a lot of lamps already published by D. Alicu in Die römischen Lampen. Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, Bucureşti, 1994, therefore will try an update of this study. The scientific research on this artefacts could have quite interesting results, as the period into consideration range from Trajan to Filip the Arab reign, and when we will compare the lamps inside a grave with the other material discovered on the same deposit.
MATEI V. ALEXANDRU
MUZEUL JUDEŢEAN DE ISTORIE ŞI ARTĂ ZALĂU – ROMANIA
Roman rush lights discovered within the territory of the Roman municipium Porolissum
The paper describes 8 unbroken lamps and 18 lamp fragments discovered through archaeological field research, where, starting with the reign of Emperor Septimius Severus, it developed the municipal settlement of Porolissum. The archaeological conditions of these findings are illustrated : the place and the stratigraphic conditions. Most of the lamps are of classic type, having a single hole for burning, but there were also discovered three lamps which have more holes for burning, type that is represented both by the rectangular body lamp type and by the round body lamp type The six lamps that bear the seal with the name of the workshop (the owner of the officinal), belong to the workshops : FORTIS (2), OCTAVI (1), CASSI (1), PRO. F (1), IEGIDI ???! (1) (difficult to identify). Taking into account the quality of the workmanship, most of these pieces seem to have been produced in the workshops from Porolissum, and it was difficult to identify the essential pieces from other centers throughout Dacia. At the beginning of the 3rd century A.D., when the urban evolution begins in the settlement of Porolissum, the workshops of the main candle manufacturers were operating here at Porolissum, in the capital of the Roman province Dacia Porolissensis.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE “VASILE PÂRVAN” BUCHAREST – ROMANIA
New Discoveries of Oil Lamps at Alburnus Maior (The Sector of the Archaeological Institute, Bucharest)
In the last five years a team of archaeologists from Institute of Archaeology-Bucharest has carried out rescue excavations at Roşia Montană (Romania, Alba County), the ancient Roman settlement Alburnus Maior. This site it is world-wide known for the famous discoveries of Roman writing tablets and for the Roman gold mining exploitations. The new rescue excavations have focused on the Roman cemeteries used by the people that inhabited this area in the Roman period. As is already well-known the oil lamps (lucernae) were very often deposited as grave goods, one of the most wide spread interpretations being that every dead person would have needed them as lux perpetuua in the world of shadows. Thus, we have had the opportunity of finding a relatively large amount of oil lamps deposited in the Roman time graves at Roşia Montană. Most of the oil lamps found there are of so-called type Loeschcke X, with or without the stamp of the producer. Among the oil lamps produced by specific officinae, I mention the lamps produced by Fortis, Optatus, Murrus, Favor, Vettius and an unknown producer till now, Valens. An important aspect regarding these finds is that they were all found in the so-called “close archaeological contexts” ; in contrast, most of the published oil lamps (mainly from museum collections) have no contextual data. We have now the opportunity, by various types of analyses, to get new insights into this topic, for instance the oil lamps provenience, chronology, production and consumption.
INSTITUTE OF ARCHAEOLOGY, WARSAW UNIVERSITY – POLAND
From Athribis to Cnidvs Levantine variations of terracotta lamps of Loeschcke Type VIII
The departing point of the present discussion will be the lamps of a type classified by . Loeschcke on the basis of lamp finds from Vindonissa (of a period not exceeding A.D. 101) as his Type VIII. Their faithful copies, regional imitations and late descendants are known from a vast area ranging from North Africa and Egypt throughout Palestine, Syria and Cyprus, to the European provinces of the Empire (having been identified in Greece as Corinth type XXV by O. Broneer). D.M. Bailey, in the British Museum Catalogue (Lamps, II, 1980) gave the first comprehensive discussion of the Italian developments of LT VIII, classified as his Types O (the genuine Loeschcke Type VIII, including six groups), P (including three groups) and Q (including ten groups), which subsequently created Type R (Fat-Globule Lamps) of the late 3rd into early 5th century AD. A parallel lamp development was also taking place in the Roman provinces, including the eastern ones. In this paper, we are concerned with the variations of the LT VIII lamps manufactured in the eastern provinces of the Roman empire, such as Cyprus, Egypt, Palestine, Syria and Arabia. We shall try to examine the typological nuances of the regional workshops and to establish some guidelines for their chronology.
MUSEUM OF BYZANTINE CULTURE, THESSALONIKI – GREECE
Candlesticks, candlestands, and lampstands observations and questions on their use from the Early Christian to the Byzantine period
The purpose of this paper is to look at certain questions relating to the use and spread of candlesticks, candlestands, and lampstands from the third to the nineteenth century. It is based on observations relating both to the authentic material that has survived to the present day and to depictions of the objects. The many surviving examples show that in the Early Christian period metal lampstands and the metal oil lamps they supported were especially widespread. They were used both in a religious context and in secular life. The candlesticks and candlestands of the same period are depicted in wall paintings and in mosaics, but very few examples have survived to the present day. Or so it is thought. From the seventh century onwards it seems very likely that fewer and fewer metal oil lamps were used on their lampstands. The same probably applies to the candlesticks and candlestands. What is the reason for this ? Perhaps the fact that there are fewer representations of them reflects the generally meagre output in the visual arts during and just after Iconoclasm ? In the Late Byzantine period, candlesticks and candlestands reappear in religious scenes, raising another question : what were they made of ? Were they only of metal or were there wooden ones, too, as in the Postbyzantine period ?
MUZEUL JUDEŢEAN DE ISTORIE ŞI ARTĂ ZALĂU – ROMANIA
Häusliche und Professionelle Leuchtgenstände in den Sammlungen des Kreismuseum für Geschichte und Kunst aus Zalãu
In den Sammlungen des Kreismuseums für Geschichte und Kunst aus Zalãu gibt es mehrere mittelalterliche und neuzeitliche Leuchtgegenstände aus Metal (Eisen, Bronze, Silber und Gold), Keramik, Glas, Porzellan, die für die Innen- und Außenbeleuchtung und Bergbaubeleuchtung, im heutigen Kreis Sãlaj benutzt wurden. Einige Stücke stammen aus dem Besitz ehemaliger Adligen und Kirchengemeinden. Einige von diesen wurden wahrscheinlich für Straßenbeleuchtung benutzt. Wenn wir diese Leuchtkörper nach der Gebaruchsweise einordnen, haben einige geometrischen Ständer und Griffe, dadurch sind sie tragbar, andere haben ein System nach dem sie an die Wand oder an die Decke gehängt, oder auf dem Tisch, auf dem Fenster oder auf einen anderen flachen Gegenstand gelegt werden können. In einen Beleuchtungssystem einordnend, einige brennen mit offener und andere mit geschützter Flamme. In der Kategorie mit offener Flamme für die Hausbeleuchtung gehören die Leuchter, unabhängig von dem nötigen Brennstoff, die Öllichter und die modernen Kerzenständer. Hier werden auch die Leuchter eingeordnet, für die Beleuchtung von Ikonen und von sakralischen Räumen benutzt werden. Die Lampen sind moderne Gegenstände, die aus opalisierten Glas- oder Porzellankörper haben, und mit Flammenschutz aus durchsichtigem Glas hergestellt sind. Auf eine der Lampen steht eine Wappe der adligen Familie, die es bestellt hat. Die meisten Gegenstände, gemäß den künstlerischen Tendenzen der Zeit, aus der sie stammen, sind reich geschmückt. Die Mienenbeleuchtungskörper gehören in die Kategorie der tragbaren Exemplare, und stammen aus einer der Gegenwart näheren Zeit. Eine Lampe hat auch Flammenschutz, und seiner Herstellung nach ist für Händetragen geeignet. Andere sind Lampen, die man an der Brust hängen kann. Ebenso in diese Kategorie ordnen wir auch die für die Außenbeleuchtung geeignete Sturmlampen, eine Kategorie aus dem das Museum aus Zalãu viele Exemplare hat.
CRIŞAN MUŞEŢEANU, DAN ELEFTERESCU
MUZEUL NAŢIONAL DE ISTORIE A ROMÂNIEI BUCUREŞTI/MUZEUL DUNĂRII DE JOS, CĂLĂRAŞI – ROMANIA
Les lampes romaines de Durostorum
Les lampes (lucernae) constituent une catégorie à part dans l’ensemble de la céramique romaine de Durostorum. Le nombre relativement grand des pièces découvertes dans la zone représentent le type céramique le plus connu. Nous allons présenter les lampes trouvées dans notre zone de recherches archéologiques, périmètre dans lequel sont situés aussi les ateliers pour produire la céramique de Durostorum. L’intérêt concernant ce type d’objet date de long temps, des chercheurs roumains et bulgares ont publié un nombre significatif des lampes de Durostorum ; d’abord Maria Cičikova ensuite Gh. Kuzmanov et Ivan Bacibarov ont étudié les pièces découvertes dans l’aire du camp de la Legio XI Claudia et des canabae, situé sur le territoire de l’actuelle ville de Silistra. Les découvertes présentées par nous ont été faites dans la zone des ateliers céramiques, ce qui nous fait croire que la majeure partie était produite sur place et plus souvent il s’agissait de lampes. Vers cette conclusion nous conduit autant le grand nombre de pièces, qu’une série d’autres preuves parmi lesquelles l’existence d’un archétype et des moules. À ceux-ci s’ajoutent un nombre de pièces reboutées et le fait qu’il y a des séries entieres de lampes produites dans la même moule, ou dans des moules semblables. La chronologie des lampes et implicitement des ateliers qui les ont produit peut être établie pour le moment grâce à la typologie morphologique. Ainsi les plus anciennes sont les lampes avec demi-volutes sur le bec-type Loeschke V, datées en général vers la fin du I-er siècle, mais aussi du début du siècle suivant. L’époque d’apogée est représentée par les types Loeschke X et Loeschke VIII du milieu du II-ème siècle et de la première moitié du III-ème siècle. La fin des ateliers céramiques de Durostorum est liée, probablement, aux attaques des Goths de la seconde moitié du IV-ème siècle.
MIRCEA NEGRU, ALEXANDRU BĂDESCU, ROMEO AVRAM
UNIVERSITATEA SPIRU HARET/MUZEUL NAŢIONAL DE ISTORIE A ROMÂNIEI, BUCUREŞTI – ROMANIA
Roman lamps discovered in Romula
At the National Army Museum of Romania are some lamps discovered in the central fort of Romula. This batch contains lamps found in the time or the archaeological excavations started in 1968 and continued until 1992. First group contains two lamps and one fragment that are similar but not identical with Loeschcke type I, Ivanyi type I and Deneauve type IV. They have big ovoid bodies, annular ansa and approximate triangular nozzles. One of them has a decorated discus with a bird (pigeon) that keeps in its beak a wreath ; the other ones have double rosettes. The borders are decorated with one row of lines or three rows of little circles. One lamp may be inserted in the Loeschcke type V and Ponsich type III. It has a little round body and short rounded nozzle. On the nozzle it has a volute as a decoration. On the half of discus there is a row of little slashes. The Firmalampen are of Loeschcke X type. They have a fine yellow paste and some of them are covered by a red slip. On the base they have stamps of ARMENI, CASSI, (FL)AVI, FORTIS, NERIVS and VETTI. The last group contains wheel-made lamps with round body and short nozzle. Some of them have brick paste, other ones contains visible gravels and mica. Certainly, some wheel-made lamps are of local production. The first two groups of the lamps may be dated in the second century AD ; the other ones are dated in the second and third centuries AD.
INSTITUTUL DE ARHEOLOGIE VASILE PÂRVAN, BUCUREŞTI – ROMANIA
Lamps found in the graves from Moesia Inferior (1st-3rd centuries A.D.)
Clay lamps are the most usual pieces of inventory found in the graves dated in the 1st -3rd centuries A.D. from Moesia Inferior. The study of funerary ritual reveals some rules regarding the deposition of lamps. Generally, only one lucerna was found in a grave, near the head or near the foots of the deceased. The great majority of the lamps found in the graves from Moesia Inferior are decorated with a great variety of motifs. Most frequently, on the lamps are represented animals (bulls or cocks), kantharoi, deities or scenes with human beings. Very few are the hand-made clay lamps. Lamps were found prevailingly in inhumation graves. Only in six graves was discovered the same number of bronze lamps. As parts of the funerary inventory, the lamps manufactured from metal certainly indicate welfare, judging from two points of view : the price and the association with other expensive items, such as jewerly. Bronze lamps were found, at least in Moesia Inferior, in graves belonging rather to women, than to men.
IOAN C. OPRIŞ
UNIVERSITATEA BUCUREŞTI, BUCUREŞTI – ROMANIA
Late Roman and Early Byzantine Lamps in the province of Scythia (4th – 6th c. A.D.). The curent state of research
Our paper aims at reviewing the results of the excavations undertaken on several archaeological sites from the province of Scythia, that have been published during the last decade and particularly the important quantity of lamps and moulds found in necropolises, habitation contexts or close to the identified workshops’ areas. These artefacts have been brought to the scientific circuit in some of the most important national or regional annuals (Dacia, Pontica, Peuce), or in other recent monographs, regarding the sites from Halmyris or Capidava. Unfortunately, the issuing of the most significant and comprehensive study regarding the Roman and Roman-Byzantine lamps in eastern part of Moesia Inferior, later on known as Scythia (i.e. the Ph.D. thesis of C. Iconomu, Un capitol al producţiei şi schimbului de mărfuri în zona Dunării de Jos – lucernele, sec. I-VII e.n., Bucharest, 1986) is still lingering. As mentioned above, the current Forschungsstand includes a large number of Late Roman/ Early Byzantine lamps published in two recent monographs on significant fortifications along the Lower Danube limes, i.e. Halmyris and Capidava (for the latter, see Ioan I.C. Opriş, Ceramica romană târzie şi paleobizantină de la Capidava în contextul descoperirilor de la Dunărea de Jos (sec. IV-VI p.Chr.), Editura Enciclopedică, Bucureşti, 2003, respectively the chapter dedicated to the lamps). On the other hand, the excavations at Halmyris brought new particular pieces of information for the topic regarding the production centres within the province. A certain number of lamps and moulds have been discovered here, in the vicinity of an oven’s remnants and bear any trace of usage, thus certifying their production in situ. Six different patterns for two different types of so called Warzenlampen – with their variants – could be identified (see Fl. Topoleanu, Ceramica romanăşi romano-bizantină de la Halmyris (sec. I-VII p. Chr.), Tulcea, 2000, pp. 177-219, cat.nos. 541-564, the chapter dedicated to the Late Roman and Early Byzantine lamps and moulds, for the types I – Iconomu 1986, type XXXVII ; Perlzweig 1961, no. 2807 ; Bruneau 1965, nos. 4704, 4707-4709 ; Bailey 1988 Q 3158, Q 3192-3294 and II – Iconomu 1967, type XXX, no. 54 ; Perlzweig, 1961, no. 2935). Both monographs largely amended the general picture of the matter at issue on local production or the most popular Oriental or African imported items, on the epoch’s artistic trends etc. Besides that, the two important lamp series mentioned above offered the possibility of recognizing new production centres, in addition to the previously known ones from Kranevo, Tomi, Ulmetum, Dinogetia and Tropaeum Traiani. At last but by no means least, our report will put forward the bulk of newly published lucernae and the mapping of the various sites they came from, insisting on typology as well as on the most frequent Christian, zoo-anthropomorphic, vegetal or geometric decorative patterns.
MUZEUL NAŢIONAL DE ISTORIE A TRANSILVANIEI CLUJ -NAPOCA – ROMANIA
Lamp makers – written sources
Today as in antiquity, light has served two principles : the utilitarian function of illuminating dark spaces and the symbolic role of offerings to the God of Death. It was a common practice among the early Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans to seal lighted lamps in the sepulchers of their dead, possibly also for the deceased to use these lights in finding his way through the Valley of the Shadow. For thousands of years small oil lamps were used for light in homes, temples, taverns, and tombs. At least as far back as 3,500 BC, oil lamps are known to have been in use. Any vessel capable of holding fuel and supporting a wick could serve as a lamp and there are specialists who believe that as early as 18,000 years ago during the Epipalaeolithic Age, conch shells and eventually carved-stone bowls served as oil lamps. Archaeologists are not able to excavate ancient light. However, they do recover the objects that housed, controlled, and sustained it. In antiquity, the chief instruments used for everyday lighting purposes were oil lamps, lanterns, torches, lamp-stands, candles, and hanging lamps. Among these devices, clay oil lamps would ultimately emerge as the most popular for satisfying the lighting needs of ancient peoples. Their popularity throughout the Mediterranean world may be explained in part by the widespread availability of olive oil – considered one of the best fuels for lighting – throughout the region where olives were cultivated in abundance and a strong olive oil economy prospered. While highly decorated lamps were popular, and a cheap source of art for even the humblest of homes, undecorated lamps were also made in huge quantities. These are referred to as Firmalampen or “Factory lamps” as they were mass produced, typically in larger cities. Many of these factory lamps had a maker’s stamp on the bottom of them, produced by making the name in the mould, so that it stood out on the lamp when pressed. A few makers gained such a name for their wares, that even their stamp was copied by others throughout the Empire. One such name often found copied was FORTIS, though numerous others were also pirated in this way. Perhaps more common than forged names on lamps, however, were “district offices”. That is large lamp makers in Rome or elsewhere may have opened authorized lamp production centers in the provinces who bore their trade-mark name on the lamp. This was a marketing strategy that often followed the Roman Army into areas that had created new markets for their products. Besides utilizing local craftsmen, some lamp specialists may have migrated as well, to set up the sub-contract lamp making operations. One of these lamp makers whose name appears in Dacia at Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa is Ianuarius. The surname Ianuarius is a very common and unspecific Roman name of Latin origin, born both in Italy and in the provinces by Italics and local people as well. The lamp producer from the Roman-Dacian capital was active during the first half of the second century and most of his lamps were found in the sanctuary dedicated to Aesculapius and Hygia. Could he be the one and the same with the tile maker Ianuarius whose tiles were used to cover a villa north of the amphitheatre ? Or even with the presumed Ulpius Ianuarius, worshipper of the healing powers of the gods of medicine ?
UNIVERSITATEA BABEŞ-BOLYAI CLUJ-NAPOCA – ROMANIA
Römische Lampen und das antike Glas : einige Bemerkungen
Die wichtigste antike Darstellung einer römischer Glasbearbeitungswerkstatt kennen wir von römischen Lampen (Loeschcke IV/Dressel 11), die wahrscheinlich in Nord Italien hergestellt wurden und die man in die 70-er Jahre des I. Jh. nach Ch. datieren kann. Solche Lampen wurden bis jetzt nur in Dalmatien (Asseria) und Nord Italien (Prati di Monastirollo) gefunden. Von wenigen Fundstellen kennen wir auch einige römische Glasslampen, die Metall oder Keramik Vorbildern nachgeamt haben, aber deren Benutzung scheint in der Kaiserzeit nicht weit verbreitet zu sein. Wenn man die Glasfunden auflisten möchte, die mit der antiker Beläuchtung im Zusammenhang stehen, sollte man viel eher die meistens als „Guttus“ publizierten – und für Säugfläschchen gehaltene Ausgussgefässe, die in der II. und III. Jh. nach Ch. in der Donauprovinzen recht beliebt waren – neu auswerten. Aus dem Gesichtspunkt der technischen und der Form bedingten Eigenschaften, kann man sie sehr gut auch zum nachfüllen von Lampen oder anderen Gefässen benutzen, aber sicher nicht um die Säuglinge zu stillen.
DOREL PARASCHIV, GEORGE NUŢU
INSTITUTUL DE CERCETĂRI ECO-MUZEALE, TULCEA – ROMANIA
Deux lampes romaines découvertes en Dobroudja
Les auteurs présentent deux lampes romaines inédites pour la Dobroudja, trouvées à Poşta, le point Cotul Celicului (dans le territoire de la cité de Noviodunum) dans une tombe qui on date à la fin du Ier siècle ou au début du IIe siècle ap. J.-C. La premiere lampe représente une imitation d’une pièce en bronze, tandis que l ‘autre – qui a cinq becs, porte à sa base (dos) une estampille d ‘un producteur, Claudius Maxis, inconnu jusqu’à présent.
UNIVERSITATEA BABEŞ- BOLYAI, CLUJ-NAPOCA – ROMANIA
The distribution of African lamps in the former Roman provinces from the Middle and Lower Danube
Owing to a recent intensive and detailed research the African lamps of the 5th – 6th centuries AD,also known as Christian lamps, are today well studied and catalogued (Bussiere, Day, Mackensen, Bonifay etc.). Less known and studied are the ways this kind of lamp has spread towards certain areas of the Late Roman Empire and Early Byzantine one and even within those areas already lost by the Romans. In this study we are focused on the way, the routes the types of lamps found in the former Late Roman provinces during the 5th -6th centuries : Valeria, Pannonia II, Moesia Prima, Dacia Ripensis and Moesia II. This period was defined by the settling down here of Huns, Gepids and Avars. At the same time, another important aspect is to figure out the scale to which the Vandal occupation in Africa (AD 433-535) has affected or not the production and trade of this type of lamps. Following the access to a large bibliography in this field of speciality concerning the Christian African lamps of this period from the mentioned area and its adjacent zones the author made up maps of spreading areas for the Christian African lamps. The aim was to establish the way, the routes and the reasons these lamps arrived in those areas. The study is also important as contributes to the identification the ways that the Ancient Roman Christianity has survived in the barbarian world.
REGIONAL MUSEUM KRANJ – SLOVENIA
The oil lamps from territory of the western Slovenia : from Aquileia to Emona
The contribution will represent oil lamps from Early Roman period which were discovered on the territory of present-time western Slovenia. That same area used to be since the earliest times an influential region of the Aquileia colony which was founded in 181 BC. The territory represented already from the 1.century BC a part of Galia Cisalpina and was later included to the Regio X. Numerous posts were being established, the colony of Emona being one of them. It was founded as the most eastern town in domain of the Italian territory as well as the X Region. The area was divided into three urban territories ; on the West, a big piece of land belonged to the ager Aquileiensis, the South-Western part to Tergeste and therefore to Emona. The article discusses those oil lamps which came to light in the contests of archaeological excavations performed in the last decade on the territory. Dealing with oil lamps will be based on classification and typology, it will in addition consider the problematic connected to the centres of origins and local productions and the extension of the material within urban and rural context. Commercial connections with Italic and Aegean centres of production will be briefly described and in conclusion the comparison will be made between centres of origin of the rest of the noted ceramic material and the oil lamps. A mainstay for the material datation will consist in extensive publications that treat the Emona burial ground material, together with some other smaller necropolis from the territory in question, as well as early Roman settlement contexts.
MUZEUL JUDEŢEAN DE ISTORIE ŞI ARTĂ ZALĂU – ROMANIA
The Lighting in the North-Western part of Preroman Dacia Ist century B.C – Ist century A.D
In the delimited area there are 60 unfortified settlements 10 fortified settlements and 10 fortresses. All these 90 sites, with discoveries are situated on the territory of 64 modern settlements, but only 30 % of them were excavated and summarily published and in 9 of them were slightly excavated. 40 of them were analyzed by field research and excavations. The unequal information gathering and publication forced us to tighten the research area to the western half of Salaj County. His area is well defined in geographical point of view, and it is representative what means the types of discoveries, and it was more researched under all aspects. It is the Depression of Simleu we are talking about, where in La Tene D it can be seen an amount of discoveries (fortifications, settlements, treasure discoveries), all put in bond with the existence of a strong tribal unions, out of five in Transylvania. This centre had its nucleus in the amount of settlements and fortifications on the hills of Magura Simleului, a rigorously articulated defensive micro system, based on 11 fortifications (8 fortifications and 3 fortified settlements). The systematic archeological excavations made in the past 10 years prove our affirmations, and also substantially completes the older excavations what concerns II-nd century B.C and II-nd century A.D (the Roman Conquest). Among local dacian material culture elements there are the rushlight, which present the following characteristics : they are common clay made recipients, with smudged pottery in their paste, are burned oxidant or inoxidant, brown, orange or black colored and the majority are not decorated, and last but not least, there are small stones and mica in their mixture. Decoration : cluttered vertical and horizontal belts (1/5, 6 ; 2/3) clutters on their edge or handle. The majority of the recipients have one (2/1-4 ; 3/1, 2), two (1/5-6 ; 2/5) or even three handles (2/3, 4).The pots without handle are rare (1/4). Also the majority of the recipients have a secondary burning on their edges, in the interior. These recipients have been found in a large number during the excavations in the settlements and fortifications of Depression of Simleu (161 pieces, meaning 9,2 % of the total recipient findings). The Dacian rushlihht were used to provide light, or to warm small places, the used fuel was animal fat. Few had on their top, other recipients, full with little holes, named smoker (1/2). These rushlight provided diffused light in the houses, and their smokers protected the fire, not to burn the roof, made of straw, or other inflammable materials. Typology : 1a type-without handle (I-st century B.C.-I-st century A.D.) 2a type-with one handle -smoothed by wheel (I-st century B.C.) 2b type-with one handle- with a blank handle (I.st century A.D.) 2c type-with one handle- with a handling beak (I-st century B.C.) 2d type-with one handle- with four vertical continuous belts on the interior (I-st century B.C.) 3 type-with two handles (I-st century B.C.- I-st century A.D.) 4 type-with three handles (I-st century B.C.- I-st century A.D.) 5 type-smoker (I-st century B.C.- I-st century A.D.)
ALEXANDRU POPA, SERGIU MUSTEAŢĂ
Römerzeitliche Lampenfunde aus dem Gebiet der heutigen Republik Moldau
Bronzelampen. Aus dem Untersuchungsgebiet sind (uns) bis jetzt zwei Fundstücke dieser Gattung bekannt. Eine achterförmige Lampe mit Henkel gehört zum Inventar des frühkaiserzeitlichen Körpergrabes bei Mocra. Diese Lampe wurde zusammen mit mehreren römischen und einheimischen Gefäßen aus Bronze, Holz, Keramik usw. geborgen. Eine weitere Bronzelampe kam 1973 bei den Ausgrabungen in Rudi zu Tage. Leider ist das Fundstück verschollen, und es wurde nur ein einziges Foto ohne weitere Details publiziert. Keramiklampen sind durch frühkaiserzeitliche Tonlampen aus Cuconeştii Vechi, Parcani und Tyras vertreten. Das Fundstück aus Cuconeştii Vechi wurde bei der Ausgrabung eines sarmatischen Körpergrabs entdeckt, in dem neben der Lampe auch andere Funde des 2. Jhs. n.Chr. zu Tage kamen. Wahrscheinlich aus einem Körpergrab wurde im 19. Jh. auch die Tonlampe aus Parcani (Parkany) geborgen ; die genauen Fundumstände dieses Stücks sind leider nicht bekannt. Der mit 1.-2. Jh. n.Chr. datierte Fund aus Tyras wurde in Rahmen der Ausgrabungen von N. Moroşan 1918-1919 in der antiken Stadt geborgen und befindet sich jetzt im Magazin des Nationalmuseums in Chişinău. Eine weitere Tonlampe kam in der spätkaiserzeitlichen Siedlung Sobari zu Tage. Es handelt sich um ein handgemachtes Stück, das eher eine Lampe aus Bronze als eine aus Ton imitiert. Verbreitung. Alle Fundstellen, an denen römische Lampen oder deren Kopien vorkommen, liegen sehr nahe bei einem der Großflüsse der Region : entweder Dnestr oder Prut. Diese Tatsache entspricht den Beobachtungen in anderen Regionen des europäischen Barbaricums, wonach die meisten römischen Lampen in der Nähe der Handelstrassen an der Elbe, Oder, Weichsel usw. vorkommen. Funktion. Die römischen Lampen zählen zu den seltensten Metall- bzw. Keramikfunden jenseits der Grenze der Provinzen Dacia und Moesia Inferior. Im Vergleich zu den anderen Erzeugnissen römischer Herkunft, die zahlreich in unserem Untersuchungsgebiet vorkommen, bleiben die Lampen selten. Diese Tatsache ist nicht etwa auf fehlende Handelskontakte oder ähnliches zurückzuführen, sondern eher auf fehlende Nachfrage. Warum die „Barbaren“ geringes Interesse für diese Produkte zeigten, lässt sich eher mit der verwendeten Brennmasse erklären : statt Öl benutzte man hier Tierfett und dafür waren die römischen Lampen ungeeignet. Als Konsequenz waren in Barbaricum für die Beleuchtung schalenförmige „Lampen“ mit einer breiten „Öffnung“ in Gebrauch, die etwa bei Sarmaten als Räuchergefäße oder bei Dakern als „ceaşcă dacică“ bekannt sind.
MUZEUL JUDEŢEAN DE ISTORIE ŞI ARTĂ ZALĂU – ROMANIA
Restoration and conservation of a Roman iron lamp, discovered in the Roman fort from Bucium (Salaj County)
Between the Roman artifacts discovered by the archaeological excavation at the Roman fort Bucium in 1973, it has been discovered although an iron lamp. The body of the lamp has been destroyed in about 30 % by the combined actions of the iron corrosion. The x-rays emphasized fissures and cracks from which some have been visible, the whole surface have shown corrosion products of iron, tending to exfoliations. By the chemical investigations, inside, there have been identified some storages of Fe(OH)3, having brown color, Fe2O3 having a red-brown color and FeO having black color. Outside on the under part of the body there have been some surface covered with FeCl. The restoration activities, which have been taken place in 1994, have compromise activities like removing the easily dissolving soil depositions with acetone, mechanic treatments, chemical treatments, and impregnations with Araldite AY103 and Hardener HY956. These have been followed by the rounding of the missing parts with similar resin, colored with iron oxides and applying a coat of tannin. The finally conservation have been made with microcrystalline wax Paranoid B72. This method of restoration has proved itself to be efficient, because since that intervention (12 years ago) the corrosion process have been stopped, however since than the artifact has been permanently exposed.
DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY, SECTION OF EARTH MATERIALS, UNIVERSITY OF PATRAS, PETRAS – GREECE
New archaeometric data for Roman lamps in Northwestern Peloponnese, Greece
The archaeometric study dealing with Roman lamps derived from excavations in Northwestern Peloponnese indicated that : 1. ancient potters used local clay resources without any initial processing (levigation, settling, grinding) for their production, 2. the kneading of clays was not always successful, 3. the firing temperature ranged from T≤700°C to T≥1100°C and 4. the control of firing conditions (temperature, time, atmosphere in the kilns), by potters, was not always careful. In an attempt to attest the above results prismatic bars made with local clay, silty-clay samples collected from the Plio-Pleistocene sediments of the NW Peloponnese, were fired in a laboratory electrical furnace at 850°, 950° and 1050°C at a thermal gradient of 3°C/min in order to determine the petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical changes which took place during firing. Comparing these petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical data of modern ceramic bars with those of roman lamps very few differences were observed, confirming the provenance of raw materials and the determined technology used by potters for the production of lamps.
SIMONA REGEP-VLASICI UNIVERSITATEA DE VEST TIMIŞOARA – ROMANIA
The stamped lamps from Tibiscum
Among other ceramic artifacts, in the Roman settlement from Tibiscum there were discovered more Firmalampen lamps. Most of them have the stamp of the craftsman. Among them we could mention Aprius, Armenius, Cassius, Festus, Fortis, legidius, Strobilius, etc, already known at Tibiscum. The new investigations have underlined the existence of lamps of unknown craftsmen, who vsigned their products with FAOR or L L V (so far new at Tibiscum). The lamps from Tibiscum belong to the Roman period, dating between the first half of the IInd century – the IIIrd century AD. Beside the lamps marketed at Tibiscum, the artisans have also realized Firmalampen lamps. Some of them have the stamp of the artisan : AVR F, CAI, but others were not stamped, the artisan remaining anonymous. For a local production of lamps at Tibiscum also plead the discoveries of molds.
MUZEUL NAŢIONAL DE ISTORIE A TRANSILVANIEI, CLUJ-NAPOCA – ROMANIA
Lamp Workshops from Dacia. Identification elements
In this paper I present a series of example from Roman Dacia concerning identification of a lamp workshop. When most of characteristics features of a workshop are missing (production and firing installations, patterns moulds) we have to rely on few information offered by the products, in our case – lamps. In this way I gather few examples of lamps groups which share the same fabric properties, same coating, same form, stamp or deficiency. Their individuality marks these groups as reliable indicators of certain lamp production, of a lamps workshop.
UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY, DEPARTMENT OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ZABREB – CROATIA
Roman lamps from Tilurium
Roman legionary fortress Tilurium is located in the north-eastern part of the plateau above the right bank of the Cetina river (Hyppus) situated in Croatian south, Dalmatia. Systematic archaeological excavations named ˝Project Roman military camps in Croatia – Tilurium begun by Department of Archaeology at the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Zagreb with the assistance of the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia in 1997 and are still continued. A certain amount of archaeological material found in the fortress Tilurium is made of Roman lamps. The typological analysis of the fragments asserted that the found artefacts belong to standard types of Firmalampen and Bildlampen lamps which were imported from Italy. The lamps can be dated from 1st to 5th century AD, which covers the time span from foundation of fortress to its downfall.
MUZEUL REGIUNII PORŢILER DE FIER DROBETA-TURNU SEVERIN -ROMANIA
Lampes à huile et moules pour lampes à huile découverts dans la villa rustica de Gârla Mare, dép. de Mehedinti (II-III siècles ap. J.-Chr.)
Fouillée d’une manière exhaustive, la villa rustica de Gârla Mare jouit depuis 2005 d’une étude monographique pertinente (Stîngă,2005). Du point de vue chronologique la villa se place dans l’intervalle débutant dans les années 106-117 et finissant environ 244-245, témoignage livré par une monnaye frappée durant le règne de Gordien III à Viminacium. Il s’agit d’une unité économique autonome, munie, entre autres utilités auxiliaires, d’un four de potier lequel, à côté d’autres découvertes, prouve l’existence d’un véritable centre céramique de la ferme (Stîngă, 1997, 621-637 ; Stîngă 2005, 36). Le four, composé de trois blocs de torchis, est du type à pied central. Une fois démoli le foyer du four, dans ses parois, comme éléments de consolidation il y avait cinq moules de lampe à huile, fragmentaires, dont trois parfaitement conservées. Moules
moule représenté par deux matrices de lampe à couvercle circulaire et à 13 lumières, utilisant comme modèle, paraît-il, une lampe produite dans l’officine de Gemellinus de Sarmizegetusa Ulpia – moule de lampe circulaire à huit lumières – moule de lampe à trois lumières, dont le creux du couvercle est partiellement brisé – deux fragments de moules, beaucoup plus petits, ne gardant aucun reste de fond ou de couvercle ; les dimensions réduites font penser à des formes à une seule lumière. Lampes à huile. Elles sont peu nombreuses en comparaison avec le reste du matériel archéologique découvert ; aucune de ces lampes n’est travaillée dans les moules trouvés dans le foyer du four. La bonne qualité de la pâte nous fait penser à l’éventualité d’un produit d’importation – lampe à glaçure, fragmentaire ; sur le fond porte l’estampille fragmentaire du potier_ _SSI – trois lampes circulaires, à une seule lumière, fragmentaires, ayant sur le couvercle, autour de l’orifice d’alimentation, un décor circulaire composé d’oves – couvercle de lampe circulaire, richement décoré en deux registres concentriques à l’orifice d’alimentation – couvercle fragmentaire d’une lampe à trois lumières, décoré de deux bandes incisées concentriques – fragment de lampe double – basin de lampe – fragment de couvercle – basin fragmentaire de lampe portant entièrement l’estampille OCTAVI – lampe en entier, en pâte grossière, mal préparée, poreuse, rugueuse ; les deux matrices semblent avoir été inégales comme dimensions ; sur le couvercle se distingue un dauphin, sur le fond une estampille représentant un petit sapin ; nous considérons qu’il s’agit d’un produit de l’atelier local
Stîngă 1997 I. Stîngă, Un centru ceramic în teritoriul rural al Drobetei : Gârla Mare, ActaMN, 34/I, Cluj Napoca, 1997, p.621-637 Stîngă 2005 I. Stîngă, Villa rustica de la Gârla Mare. Studiu monografic, Craiova, 2005
EDEBIYAT FAKÜLTESI ARHEOLOJI BÖLÜMÜ, ISTAMBUL – TURKEY
Bronze lamps in the Istanbul Archaeologıcal Museum
The bronze lamps in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum, where a variety of material from once the Ottoman Empire-Palestine, Syria, the Lebanon and Macedonia- acquired through confiscation, purchase or in a few cases from excavations, illustrate the range of bronze lamp production in the Eastern Mediterrannean from archaic to the Late Roman world. The collection is particularly rich in lamps from Early Christian period and also includes polycandela. The Istanbul lamps offer a useful and interesting body of material for the student of lightly technology in the ancient world. The collection has more than 200 lamps, lampstands, polycandela, lantern, lamplids, open lamps, etc. Especially lampstands in the shape of arm are very interesting and unusual types. I shall give a brief information of lamps and show theirs types.
DAN GHEORGHE TAMBA
MUZEUL JUDEŢEAN DE ISTORIE ŞI ARTĂ ZALĂU – ROMANIA
Les lampes d’une taverne du vicus militaire du grand camp de Porolissum
Le sujet de la présentation est constitué par les lampes découvertes à la suite des fouilles archélogiques systématiques de l’objectif conventionellement noté LM1 de Porolissum. Les recherches de ce bâtiment ont été faites en plusieures étapes : dans la période 1939-1940 par prof. C. Daicoviciu et Prof. L. Ghergariu ; et à partir de 1990 quatre campagnes de fouilles coordonées par N. Gudea et D. Tamba. Le bâtiment LM1 de 16,00m sur 22,00m était composé de 4 chambres (A, B, C, D). Une inscription nous a informé que c’était une taberna (GUDEA, TAMBA, 2001). Le bâtiment était situé à gauche du chemin menant depuis “La térrasse des Sanctuaires” en haut vers le camp du mont „Pomet“. Il était en faite situé sur la premiere térrasse vis-a-vis de l’angle nord du camp, dans une zone ou le chemin commencait à avoir un trajet horizontal puisqu’il traversait le long de la térrasse. Le bâtiment faisait partiedu vicus militaire et appartenait à un complexe architectonique qui comprenait aussi le temple de Jupiter Optimus Maximus Dolichenus (GUDEA, TAMBA, 2001). À la suite des recherches, les fragments de 9 lampes ont été retrouvées et ce sont elles qui consitutuent le sujet de la présentation.
UNIVERSITATEA DE VEST TIMIŞOARA – ROMANIA
Vergessene Tonlampen von Dierna-Orsova
Dierna, eine der bedeutenden, antiken Hafenstädte der Donau wurde leider nur sehr wenig durch archäologischen Ausgrabungen untersucht. Heutzutage der Platz der römischen Trümmeln ist von die Gewässern des Teiches des Eisernen Tor Kranwerks bedeckt. Deswegen, die alten Funden spielen eine wichtige Rolle in die Schreibung der Geschichte des Stadts Dierna. Die Tonlampen Fundgruppe gehört zu den archäologischen Materialien die von Privatleute, gegen der Jahrhundertwende gefunden wurden. Die Meisten scheinen von der antiken Nekrpolen aufgetaucht zu haben. Chronologisch, die Tonlampen dehnen sich auf eine Zeitspanne von 2. bis 5. Jh. n. Chr. ; Typologisch kann man 3 grosse Gruppen feststellen : Firmalampen (ARMENI, CASSI, IEGIDI, LITOGENES, OPTATI, usw.). einfachverzierter Tonlampel (mit Vogelmuster auf dem Deckel) und graue frühbyzantinische Tonlampen (der 4.-5. Jh.n. Chr.).
INSTITUTUL DE CERCETĂRI ECO-MUZEALE TULCEA – ROMANIA
Les lampes chrétiennes découvertes dans la crypte martyrique de Halmyris (com. De Murighiol, dep. de Tulcea)
Pendant les fouilles archéologiques de l`année 2001, a Halmyris a été fouillée une crypte d`une basilique ou étaient enterrés les martyres Epictète et Astion. Parmi le matériel archéologique on remarque deux lampes chrétiennes, conservées en entier, très importantes pour établir la chronologie du monument.
MOJCA VOMER GOJKOVIČ
REGIONAL MSEUM PTUJ – SLOVENIA
The oil lamps from territory of the eastern Slovenia : Poetovio
The contribution will represent oil lamps from Early Roman period which were discovered on the territory of present-time eastern Slovenia. Settle down of the roman legions on the strategic important passage across the river was very influenced on development of the settlement at river Drava. First the military camp was gradually developed in a small town. The conclusion of the roman urbanisation is important for constitute the colony Ulpia Traiana Poetovio in the time of Roman emperor Traian around the year 103 when the town got the civilian administration with transfer the legions at river Danube. Poetovios growth was accelerated with prosperous position by the main road Celeia – Savaria, also named the amber road. Its greatest development was in the 2nd and 3rd century with the centre of Ilirian custom and the states archives. Poetovio was one of the most developed towns in Roman provinces. In town there were many manufactories on the both sides of Drava ; among them there were mostly brick and pottery workshops. Between the 1st and 4th century the Roman Poetovio had various ethnical feature. Here lived Italics, Romanized Celtic natives, merchants from eastern and western provinces, than officials and slaves from the Greek speaking Orient. The different cultures had an influence on appearance of the import material, such as oil lamps. The article discusses those oil lamps which came to light in the contests of archaeological excavations performed in the last decade on the territory. Dealing with oil lamps will be based on classification and typology, it will in addition consider the problematic connected to the centres of origins and local productions and the extension of the material within urban and rural context. Commercial connections with Italic and Aegean centres of production will be briefly described and in conclusion the comparison will be made between centres of origin of the rest of the noted ceramic material and the oil lamps. A mainstay for the material datation will consist in extensive publications that treat the Poetovio burial ground material, together with some other smaller necropolis from the territory in question, as well as early Roman settlement contexts.
UBC MYTILENE AND STYMPHALOS EXCAVATIONS – CANADA
Lamps from Mytilene (Lesbos) : from Archaic Greek to Early Roman Excavations at two sites in Mytilene, chief Town of the island of Lesbos, by the University of British Columbia between 1984-94 produced over a thousand complete or fragmentary terracotta oil lamps dating from the late archaic period to the mid 4th century after Christ. This paper will survey this extensive collection, especially rich in early Hellenistic and early Roman material from a sanctuary of Demeter on the acropolis of the ancient Town. There is evidence for local production,importation from Asia Minor (especially from nearby Pergamon), mainland Greece, and Italy ; the collection is the first large one to be studied from the eastern Greek islands.
UNIVERSITY OF NAMUR, DEPT. OF HISTORY OF ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY – BELGIUM
Trois séries de lampes découvertes lors des fouilles du temple des Fabri Vavales à Ostie : les Firmalampen, les Vogelkopflampen et les lampes du type Bisi VII B Les fouilles menées par la Mission belge d’Ostie sur le terrain du temple collégial des Fabri Navales ont livré quelque mille lampes et fragments de lampes en terre cuite. L’essentiel de ce matériel lychnologique est constitué d’exemplaires du type Loeschcke VIII. D’autres séries, représentées par un nombre moins grand de lampes, sont néanmoins bien attestées. Nous étudierons, dans notre communication, trois de ces séries : les Firmalampen, les Vogelkopflampen et les lampes à becs multiples du type Bisi VII B. Les Firmalampen découvertes appartiennent, pour l’essentiel, au type Loeschcke-Buchi X. Deux exemplaires seulement peuvent être classés avec certitude dans d’autres séries de Firmalampen : une lampe fragmentaire est du type Loeschcke IX et un bec, déjà présenté à Nyon en 2003, est du type Bussière C VII 1 c. Aucune de nos Vogelkopflampen n’est d’époque républicaine. Toutes les lampes de ce type mises au jour par les archéologues de la Mission belge doivent être rattachées aux variantes III M et IV A de la typologie proposée par C. Pavolini dans son article Una produzione italica di lucerne : le Vogelkopflampen ad ansa trasversale. Nos fouilles ont permis la découverte de plusieurs lampes du type Bisi VII B. Les exemplaires les plus complets comptent sept becs et présentent une anse plastique en forme de bulbe ; elles peuvent être rapprochées des lampes publiées par J. Bussière dans son Lampes antiques d’Algérie. Certaines des Vogelkopflampen et des lampes Bisi VII B étudiées, ainsi que la seule Firmalampe Loeschcke-Buchi X dont le fond est conservé, sont estampillées. Les marques identifiées sont celles d’ateliers localisés en Italie.
DENIS ZHURAVLEV STATE HISTORICAL MUSEUM, MOSKOW – RUSSIA
Lamps-making in the Bosporan Kingdom
Since the second half of the 6th century BC some part of lamps was undoubtedly produced locally. At first local lamp groups must have imitated imported types. There are finds of wasted lamps in kiln in situ in the ancient Town of Nimphaion, situated not far from Pantikapaion, that prove the fact of local production of these lamps. Similar lamps might have been produced in the workshop of Demeter sanctuary. It is interesting to note rather conservative views of local population concerning lamp shapes – such round open lamps dominated in Pantikapaion till the middle of the 3rd cent. B.C. Although the local production played the main role, imported lamps are found often enough. In the 2nd and 1st centuries BC local production of different types of lamps appeared. In the beginning local craftsmen imitated lamps of Knidian and Ephesian origin, but shortly after that some local groups appeared. Among them the most impressive and interesting one are multi-nozzled lamps.. Bosporan local one-nozzled lamps were probably used as prototypes for this group. I can suppose that these groups of lighting equipment existed simultaneously during some period of time, because we found different types of lamps in the same strata layers. The most of the finds come from Pantikapaion as well as from the territory of European Bosporus – Mirmekion, Ilurat, Zenon Chersonesos. There are also some multi-nozzled lamps found in Phanagoria, but they were made from red clay and probably were copies of grey-clay Pantikapaion originals. The most popular type of Bosporan lamps is the so-called “jug-shaped” lamps. As Pantikapaion was the capital Town we do not find many such lamps here, but there are lots of them at chora. It is interesting to note that this type of lamps had a constant popularity during the Hellenistic and early Roman period. In the Roman period the activity of lamp-makers was also very high. Many different examples, reproducing well-known types of Mediterranean lamps were produced here. Some moulds were found in Pantikapaion as well as in other cities. Looking for the materials from Tanais, which was a trade center on the border with Barbarians, we can notice that more than a half of lamps were handmade in the first centuries AD. This fact probably shows the ethnic composition of this small Town. The production of handmade typical Bosporan leaf-shape lamps increase in the 2nd century. At the same time the main part of lamps found at the chora are handmade.
POLISH CENTRE OF MEDITERRANEAN ARCHAEOLOGY, WARSAW UNIVERSITY, WARSYAW – POLAND
Cretan lamps from the site Marina el-Alamein in Egypt : evidence of trade ?
Ivy-Leaf lamps, which originated in first-century Crete and number in the hundreds there, are seldom encountered outside the island. Indeed, after Benghazi, where some 34 examples have been reported from excavations, the assemblage of eight plus lamps from the Greco-Roman site of Marina el-Alamein on the northwest coast of Egypt is the most extensive one anywhere. The paper will present the group, which dates in Marina from the mid 1st to late 3rd century AD, and discuss the significance of these lamps in both funerary and domestic contexts in the ancient town.